How are integrated circuits made

Discussion in 'Computer Support' started by larry, Jul 22, 2005.

  1. larry

    larry Guest

    I was at my uncle place yesterday and he expressed a curiosity of how IC's
    are made...he wondered how Ic's could start out being round and turn out how
    they are...

    Does anyone know of any website that might be able to explain the
    construction process?

    I already found this site...
    http://www.ti.com/corp/docs/company/history/firstic.shtml
    does anyone know of others??

    Larry ve3fxq
     
    larry, Jul 22, 2005
    #1
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  2. larry

    pcbutts1 Guest

    larry, <>, whose name means "has a little sister who is a
    slut; gets around in piss-soaked underwear; likes to call his penis his 'bed
    flute'", rued:
    I only got my first computer yesterday so I can't be of much help there.
    Do you think I act Calvinist?
    I would like to continue to see you from time to time. I just can't deal
    with some of the things you might do around other people.
     
    pcbutts1, Jul 22, 2005
    #2
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  3. larry

    why? Guest

    You may only wish to look at -
    Pictures :) with 2 and 3 word process names
    http://sharif.edu/~hessabi/Adv_VLSI/slides/SEMICOND.HTM
    each picture links to a further info page

    I found that after the rest, which you may want to ignore :)


    Where does the round bit come into it? The wafer is round, it generally
    grows that way due to the process used.


    Growing the silicon boule
    http://cnx.rice.edu/content/m1033/latest/
    Figure 1: Czochalski crystal growth

    (It's been about 15 years, and I can't be bothered to dig out my text
    books, but a high degree of accuracy is maybe something you don't need
    just now)


    In it's most simple, a layer of material etched away by a chemical
    process or added to form the features that make up the elements. This
    can be used in combination using a photomask (like a negative film) a
    beam of energy is directed across the mask and where the mask allows the
    beam through it creates the pattern. Between putting on layers of
    different material (insulators / conductors) and a resist mask to
    protect / prevent covering of area by the next process, etching bits
    away transistors, capacitors and interconnects are formed.

    To create the junction types, N and P
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semiconductor
    these are formed by adding impurities called dopants. That page also
    lists a lot of the type of chemicals used.

    Looks liker a good start page, see the various bit if you don't want to
    read any further.
    http://science.howstuffworks.com/diode.htm


    As features became smaller and smaller the photomask method didn't have
    the fine resolution required, at the same time to make smaller features
    the type of energy changed, crudely think of visible light to
    ultraviolet and x-ray levels.

    Now it's possible to write directly onto the material to achieve very
    fine features.

    Somethings for you to Google,

    Electron Beam Lithography (EBL)
    http://www.semiconfareast.com/lith_electron.htm

    Photolithography
    http://www.ece.gatech.edu/research/labs/vc/theory/photolith.html
    a couple of good drawings about layers, masks and a few other methods.

    This is the theory of a P-N junction
    http://ece-www.colorado.edu/~bart/book/book/chapter4/ch4_2.htm

    Silicon structures and growth of crystals
    http://ece-www.colorado.edu/~bart/book/book/contents.htm
    see the bottom of the page


    http://www.baaqmd.gov/pmt/handbook/s07c04pd.htm
    You need not read the whole document, simply scan the table of contents
    I. PROCESS DESCRIPTIONS
    sections A - D
    Compared to the process today, that's a very crude example.
    Me
     
    why?, Jul 22, 2005
    #3
  4. larry

    old jon Guest

    Good bit of research why?. Reminds me why my hair went grey <g>. well done.
    bw..OJ
     
    old jon, Jul 22, 2005
    #4
  5. larry

    why? Guest

    :-D

    I had forgotten how to spell a few things, like

    Epitaxial
    Czochralski (crystal growth)

    Other then that the usual Google worked well, but it was my fav subject
    at uni.

    Now days it's TCP/IP and protocol dissection , that make my hair fall
    out '-)
    <snip>

    Me
     
    why?, Jul 22, 2005
    #5
  6. larry

    Pennywise Guest

    I was thinking of maybe Howstuffwork.com, a lame attempt :)
    Nice write up!

    |>
    |>On Fri, 22 Jul 2005 08:28:29 -0400, larry wrote:
    |>
    |>>I was at my uncle place yesterday and he expressed a curiosity of how IC's
    |>>are made...he wondered how Ic's could start out being round and turn out how
    |>>they are...
    |>
    |>You may only wish to look at -
    |>Pictures :) with 2 and 3 word process names
    |>http://sharif.edu/~hessabi/Adv_VLSI/slides/SEMICOND.HTM
    |>each picture links to a further info page
    |>
    |>I found that after the rest, which you may want to ignore :)
    |>
    |>
    |>Where does the round bit come into it? The wafer is round, it generally
    |>grows that way due to the process used.
    |>
    |>
    |>Growing the silicon boule
    |>http://cnx.rice.edu/content/m1033/latest/
    |>Figure 1: Czochalski crystal growth
    |>
    |>(It's been about 15 years, and I can't be bothered to dig out my text
    |>books, but a high degree of accuracy is maybe something you don't need
    |>just now)
    |>
    |>
    |>In it's most simple, a layer of material etched away by a chemical
    |>process or added to form the features that make up the elements. This
    |>can be used in combination using a photomask (like a negative film) a
    |>beam of energy is directed across the mask and where the mask allows the
    |>beam through it creates the pattern. Between putting on layers of
    |>different material (insulators / conductors) and a resist mask to
    |>protect / prevent covering of area by the next process, etching bits
    |>away transistors, capacitors and interconnects are formed.
    |>
    |>To create the junction types, N and P
    |>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semiconductor
    |>these are formed by adding impurities called dopants. That page also
    |>lists a lot of the type of chemicals used.
    |>
    |>Looks liker a good start page, see the various bit if you don't want to
    |>read any further.
    |>http://science.howstuffworks.com/diode.htm
    |>
    |>
    |>As features became smaller and smaller the photomask method didn't have
    |>the fine resolution required, at the same time to make smaller features
    |>the type of energy changed, crudely think of visible light to
    |>ultraviolet and x-ray levels.
    |>
    |>Now it's possible to write directly onto the material to achieve very
    |>fine features.
    |>
    |>Somethings for you to Google,
    |>
    |>Electron Beam Lithography (EBL)
    |>http://www.semiconfareast.com/lith_electron.htm
    |>
    |>Photolithography
    |>http://www.ece.gatech.edu/research/labs/vc/theory/photolith.html
    |>a couple of good drawings about layers, masks and a few other methods.
    |>
    |>This is the theory of a P-N junction
    |>http://ece-www.colorado.edu/~bart/book/book/chapter4/ch4_2.htm
    |>
    |>Silicon structures and growth of crystals
    |>http://ece-www.colorado.edu/~bart/book/book/contents.htm
    |>see the bottom of the page
    |>
    |>
    |>
    |>>Does anyone know of any website that might be able to explain the
    |>>construction process?
    |>
    |>http://www.baaqmd.gov/pmt/handbook/s07c04pd.htm
    |>You need not read the whole document, simply scan the table of contents
    |>I. PROCESS DESCRIPTIONS
    |>sections A - D
    |>
    |>>I already found this site...
    |>>http://www.ti.com/corp/docs/company/history/firstic.shtml
    |>
    |>Compared to the process today, that's a very crude example.
    |>
    |>>does anyone know of others??
    |>>
    |>>Larry ve3fxq
    |>>
    |>
    |>Me

    --
     
    Pennywise, Jul 22, 2005
    #6
  7. larry

    Miles Ahead Guest

    They started out as Separate But Equal Circuits (SBEC) until Brown vs Board of
    Education in 1954.
     
    Miles Ahead, Jul 22, 2005
    #7
  8. Didn't he used to play for the Maple Leafs? :)
     
    Blinky the Shark, Jul 22, 2005
    #8
  9. larry

    why? Guest

    A bit on the silly side,

    It is a little known fact, that Ms Spears is an expert in semiconductor
    physics. http://britneyspears.ac/lasers.htm

    and the maths here brings out some bad memories
    http://britneyspears.ac/physics/pn/pnjunct.htm
    starting about 1/2 way down.

    This is a good bit, MOCVD and MBE mentioned.
    http://britneyspears.ac/physics/fabrication/fabrication.htm


    Now you have me remembering stuff like this
    http://www.wiley.com/college/engin/montgomery170275/cases/YieldAna.html
    http://ece-www.colorado.edu/~bart/book/contents.htm

    <snip>

    Me
     
    why?, Jul 22, 2005
    #9
  10. larry

    why? Guest

    <grin> I was thinking of how much I had forgotten, it's just as well
    Google is about.

    <snip>

    Me
     
    why?, Jul 22, 2005
    #10
  11. larry

    Toolman Tim Guest

    LOL!
     
    Toolman Tim, Jul 22, 2005
    #11
  12. larry

    Pennywise Guest

    |>A bit on the silly side,
    |>
    |> It is a little known fact, that Ms Spears is an expert in semiconductor
    |>physics. http://britneyspears.ac/lasers.htm
    |>
    |>and the maths here brings out some bad memories
    |>http://britneyspears.ac/physics/pn/pnjunct.htm
    |>starting about 1/2 way down.
    |>
    |>This is a good bit, MOCVD and MBE mentioned.
    |>http://britneyspears.ac/physics/fabrication/fabrication.htm

    Always thought physics eluded Britney Spears
    http://www.liquidgeneration.com/poptoons/britneys_breasts.swf
    --
     
    Pennywise, Jul 22, 2005
    #12
  13. Then there's the bastard cousin OPEC.

    Top
     
    Top (retired), Jul 23, 2005
    #13
  14. larry

    why? Guest

    why?, Jul 23, 2005
    #14
  15. larry

    why? Guest

    LOL

    Me
     
    why?, Jul 23, 2005
    #15
  16. Blinky the Shark, Jul 23, 2005
    #16
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