testing system ram

Discussion in 'Computer Information' started by Frank, Dec 15, 2003.

  1. Frank

    Frank Guest

    How could I test my system memory.?
    Do I need to buy a utility program.?
    I'm operating a P4 Dell with XP (home) and have 512mb rdram. The ram is
    divided up by 4 memory cards, 128mb each. I'm looking to reassure myself
    that all 4 cards are each 100% good.
    Frank, Dec 15, 2003
    #1
    1. Advertising

  2. Frank

    mark mandel Guest

    "Frank" <> wrote in message
    news:UnaDb.40835$...
    > How could I test my system memory.?
    > Do I need to buy a utility program.?
    > I'm operating a P4 Dell with XP (home) and have 512mb rdram. The ram is
    > divided up by 4 memory cards, 128mb each. I'm looking to reassure myself
    > that all 4 cards are each 100% good.
    >
    >

    Check at Doc Memory which is at www.simmester.com.
    mark mandel, Dec 15, 2003
    #2
    1. Advertising

  3. Frank

    bambam Guest

    "Frank" <> wrote in
    news:UnaDb.40835$:

    > How could I test my system memory.?
    > Do I need to buy a utility program.?
    > I'm operating a P4 Dell with XP (home) and have 512mb rdram. The
    > ram is divided up by 4 memory cards, 128mb each. I'm looking to
    > reassure myself that all 4 cards are each 100% good.


    Memtest86

    http://www.memtest86.com/


    --
    If a person is choking on an ice cube, don't panic. Simply pour a jug
    of boiling water down their throat and presto! The blockage is almost
    instantly removed.
    bambam, Dec 15, 2003
    #3
  4. Frank

    Diehard Guest

    "Frank" <> wrote in message
    news:UnaDb.40835$...
    > How could I test my system memory.?
    > Do I need to buy a utility program.?
    > I'm operating a P4 Dell with XP (home) and have 512mb rdram. The ram is
    > divided up by 4 memory cards, 128mb each. I'm looking to reassure myself
    > that all 4 cards are each 100% good.
    >
    >


    the problem with mem test is it doesn't do any good. i had bad ram i knew
    was bad cus i couldnt install windows xp with it, and tried memtest which
    said the ram was fine, but it was not.
    Diehard, Dec 15, 2003
    #4
  5. Frank

    Thor Guest

    "Diehard" <> wrote in message
    news:qegDb.509$...
    >
    > "Frank" <> wrote in message
    > news:UnaDb.40835$...
    > > How could I test my system memory.?
    > > Do I need to buy a utility program.?
    > > I'm operating a P4 Dell with XP (home) and have 512mb rdram. The ram is
    > > divided up by 4 memory cards, 128mb each. I'm looking to reassure

    myself
    > > that all 4 cards are each 100% good.
    > >
    > >

    >
    > the problem with mem test is it doesn't do any good. i had bad ram i knew
    > was bad cus i couldnt install windows xp with it, and tried memtest which
    > said the ram was fine, but it was not.



    It depends on the problem. Memtest may not be able to determine a problem
    that has arisen out of compatibility problems, etc. But memory testing
    programs can be very good diagnostic tools. I use Qualitas Ramexam. It's a
    retail program, but every time I've had faulty memory in a system, I was
    able to confirm it with that program.
    Thor, Dec 15, 2003
    #5
  6. Frank

    Frank Guest

    From what I saw of Ramex by Qualitas, it would not work for me. They have no
    tech support phone number, or even an address for snail mail. They don't
    even provide an on-line manual.


    "Thor" <> wrote in message
    news:...
    >
    > "Diehard" <> wrote in message
    > news:qegDb.509$...
    > >
    > > "Frank" <> wrote in message
    > > news:UnaDb.40835$...
    > > > How could I test my system memory.?
    > > > Do I need to buy a utility program.?
    > > > I'm operating a P4 Dell with XP (home) and have 512mb rdram. The ram

    is
    > > > divided up by 4 memory cards, 128mb each. I'm looking to reassure

    > myself
    > > > that all 4 cards are each 100% good.
    > > >
    > > >

    > >
    > > the problem with mem test is it doesn't do any good. i had bad ram i

    knew
    > > was bad cus i couldnt install windows xp with it, and tried memtest

    which
    > > said the ram was fine, but it was not.

    >
    >
    > It depends on the problem. Memtest may not be able to determine a problem
    > that has arisen out of compatibility problems, etc. But memory testing
    > programs can be very good diagnostic tools. I use Qualitas Ramexam. It's a
    > retail program, but every time I've had faulty memory in a system, I was
    > able to confirm it with that program.
    >
    >
    Frank, Dec 17, 2003
    #6
  7. Frank

    Thor Guest

    well, Frank, Ramexam is an exceedingly simple program to use. It comes with
    documentation on it's usage, so no online manual is really necessary. It's
    also relatively cheap at $19.99, and you can even download and try out a
    limited evaluation version for free to see how it works. I'm sorry that you
    assume you can't use it, but from your description I would think it would
    serve your needs fine, and I think you are being unreasonably dismissive of
    a very good product. But, if you want to see the documentation before you
    try it, here is the accompanying readme file. I bought my registered copy in
    1999, and it has served me well in my PC repair business ever since. It's
    well worth the price, IMHO.


    Table of Contents



    * Quick Start & RSetup

    * Optimal Testing and MAKEBOOT.EXE

    * Getting Support

    * What is Memory

    * Why Memory Fails

    * A Word About Windows & Memory Testing

    * How RAMexam Tests

    * Ways to Use RAMexam

    * A Note for OS/2 Users

    * Navigating RAMexam

    * A Memory Error! Now What?

    * How to Avoid Memory Errors

    * Command Line Options





    * Quick Start & RSetup



    Thank you for purchasing Qualitas RAMexam. With it, you can use your

    PC with the confidence that your system RAM is functioning properly.



    Installing RAMexam



    Installing RAMexam is a simple task:



    1. Place the RAMexam diskette in the diskette drive.



    2. Type A: and press enter. (If you are installing from a drive

    other than A substitute that drive letter.)



    3. Type RSETUP and press enter. If the Qualitas Memory Tester is

    already installed (Qualitas MAX v. 7 & 8 includes QMT), RSetup

    replaces QMT with RAMexam. RAMexam includes all the features provided

    by QMT, and more.



    4. RSetup prompts you for information, including your name, RAMexam

    serial number and the directory you want RAMexam installed into.



    5. If you use MS-DOS 6 MultiConfig, RSetup asks into which

    configuration RAMexam should install. The section "Ways to Use

    RAMexam" makes specific suggestions about taking advantage of RAMexam

    in a MultiConfig setup.



    6. RSetup displays the scheduled testing setup screen on which you can

    tell RSetup to install a RAMexam command into your AUTOEXEC.BAT file

    for automated testing. You may choose to schedule when RAMexam runs

    from the following options:



    Whenever the system starts (or is rebooted)

    Daily (the first time the system is turned on or booted each day)

    Weekly (you choose which day of the week)

    Monthly (you choose which day of the month)

    User Defined (every n days where n is any number)



    During installation, you have the opportunity to view any changes (and

    abort them) before they are made to your start-up files. If you

    choose to allow RSetup to make the changes then your original files

    will be backed-up in the RAMexam directory.





    * Optimal Testing and MAKEBOOT.EXE



    The Qualitas Memory Tester includes a program called MAKEBOOT.EXE that

    creates a bootable diskette configured to test your system without any

    resident software active. This is optimal for testing effectiveness.

    To use MAKEBOOT you need a formatted floppy disk. MAKEBOOT deletes

    all existing files from this diskette. The diskette needs to be the

    correct size to fit in drive A (unless your system boots from another

    floppy). Put the diskette into the drive and enter:



    MAKEBOOT a: [c:]



    where a: is the destination drive and c: is the optional drive

    letter from which you normally boot (do not include the brackets).

    MAKEBOOT asks you to choose between having a Full or Quick test run

    when booting from the floppy. A Quick test usually takes under a

    minute but is not as thorough as a Full test which can take several

    hours. MAKEBOOT transfers the necessary system files to the diskette

    and creates appropriate start-up files. To use this diskette, place

    it in drive A: and restart your system. After testing completes,\0

    remove the diskette and restart your system once more to return to

    your original configuration.





    * Getting Support



    Qualitas provides technical support via e-mail only. This support is

    free for a limited period that begins with the first e-mail contact.



    Technical Support via e-mail:





    * What is Memory?



    The term "computer memory" is ambiguous. It is often used to describe

    fixed and floppy disk storage, system and adapter "read only memory"

    (ROM), video adapter "random access memory" (RAM) and so on. For the

    purpose of this documentation, the term "computer memory" (or just

    "memory") refers to the row or rows of system RAM chips that exist

    somewhere in your PC. This is the memory in which your software runs

    and it is the memory RAMexam tests.



    Few components in your PC are as crucial to its operation as memory

    and the hardware which manages memory. Defective memory can cause

    data loss, prevent your monitor from displaying properly or even cause

    your hard disk to crash. Every element in your system depends on the

    correct operation of RAM.



    The capacity of PC memory to store information is measured in bytes.

    A typical PC comes standard with several megabytes of RAM. A megabyte

    equals one million bytes (actually 1,048,576) - approximately the

    amount of memory needed to hold the text for a 600 page paperback

    novel. Each byte on an IBM compatible system contains eight bits.

    This means that the average PC with four megabytes of RAM has over 33

    million bits -- each one ready and waiting for your valuable

    information.



    Let's take a look at just one bit. Each bit "holds" one of two values

    -- 0 or 1 -- depending on its electrical state. All the information

    in your PC amounts to nothing more than a series of bits, each one

    holding a 0 or 1. For example, the word "memory" has six characters,

    each represented as a byte in memory, for a total of 48 bits of

    information:



    01101101 01100101 01101101 01101111 01110010 01111001

    m e m o r y



    Each bit is significant. What would happen if the last bit was stored

    in a defective memory chip and was stuck as zero? The new word would

    be "memorx". And if your software program got loaded into the

    defective bit then there is a very good chance your system would

    crash. Your PC operates on the assumption that each bit (all 33

    million in the above example) functions perfectly every time you use

    your PC.





    * Why Memory Fails



    People expect most machines to break eventually. We look at all the

    moving parts -- hard drives spinning rapidly for hours on end, car

    engines running for thousands of miles -- and we know that eventually

    the machine will stop working. We see it happen every day.



    Why, then, should we be so surprised to learn that system memory also

    fails? RAM itself may not spin, chug or move but it is acted upon in

    countless ways -- ways that, given RAM's fragile nature, can have

    devastating effects.



    In addition to faulty RAM, RAMexam may detect errors which occur due

    to faults in the memory subsystem - the hardware that manages the RAM.

    Unfortunately, there is no way for software to determine the

    difference between defective RAM and a defective memory subsystem.

    The causes for failure, though, are the same.



    Here are some of the most common (though by no means all) reasons that

    system memory fails:



    Static Electricity



    If you have opened your personal computer then you know that under the

    metal case are relatively vulnerable electronics. Brushing against

    system RAM while carrying even the slightest static charge can destroy

    chips by subjecting them to momentary discharges of excessive

    electricity.



    Power Surges (large and small)



    We all know about the devastating effect lightning can have on a PC.

    While a $20 surge protector may reduce risk, it does not eliminate it.

    In fact, power brown-outs -- where power levels dip momentarily

    (because somebody upstairs just started their blow dryer) are not

    handled by most surge protectors and can be just as damaging over time

    as surges. Actually, your PC is hit with a power surge every time it

    is turned on and electricity rushes into the cold system. Even when

    these brown-outs and surges do not cause immediate problems, they can

    stress the semiconductor chips, which has a cumulative damaging

    effect.



    Dust, Smoke and Pet Hair



    Did you ever wonder why the television is usually the dustiest spot in

    the house? Dust and other air impurities are attracted by the

    electrical charge of inside appliances like your television and PC

    where they layer onto components including system memory. Over time,

    these materials can build up enough to carry electrical charges and

    "short" the PC's circuitry. The dust also forms a blanket,

    diminishing the electronics' ability to release heat and stay cool.

    This results in heat stress and additional potential damage.



    Changes in Temperature



    Put your hand on the back of a PC that has been running for several

    hours. It is very warm. As with all things, PC components expand

    when their temperatures increase. Components of different materials

    (like the metal RAM prongs and the plastic material to which it is

    attached) expand and contract at different rates. Listen closely to

    your PC creak when turned off after hours of use. This expansion and

    contraction can, over time, stress the system RAM as well as the

    connections between the RAM and the other components.





    Though we can take precautions, there are no guaranteed methods for

    eliminating all chances of memory error. What we can do, though, is

    minimize the chances of losing work because of defective memory by

    using RAMexam to test system memory regularly.





    * A Word About Windows & Memory Testing



    When Microsoft Windows starts up, one of the first things it does is

    to grab almost every available byte of system memory. Conventional

    memory, high DOS memory (UMBs) and extended memory are all allocated.

    This means two important things for RAMexam users:



    1) RAMexam can only test available memory -- which doesn't exist once

    Windows has allocated all of it. RAMexam does not run in a DOS

    session under Windows because there is effectively no memory available

    for testing.



    2) Windows users should be especially zealous about doing periodic RAM

    testing because Windows is one of the few applications to use the

    multiple megabytes of RAM on most systems. Frequently, a systems run

    without incident until Windows loads -- at which point Windows

    accesses a byte of bad RAM that had never been used before. RAMexam

    testing is an effective pre-treatment because it warns you about

    defective RAM before Windows (and your work) trip over it.





    * How RAMexam Tests



    Memory is a collection of individual bits. Any time a bit fails to

    change its value correctly or erroneously changes its value then a RAM

    error occurs. Most (though not all) RAM that fails once will do so

    again. RAMexam uses exhaustive testing to invoke, trap and report RAM

    errors before they affect your application software.



    Unlike other memory testers, RAMexam uses an underlying consistent

    fault model to detect RAM errors efficiently even in complex, multiple

    fault situations. Using sophisticated strategies of writing and

    reading bit patterns in memory -- where each strategy targets a

    specific type of failure -- RAMexam provides faster and more

    comprehensive and effective testing.



    Here is a description of the categories of failures for which RAMexam

    tests:



    Stuck-at: One or more bits retain the value that exists in the memory

    when the system boots, regardless of attempts to write new values into

    the memory.



    Transition: Once changed, the value in the defective bit becomes

    stuck-at.



    Unlinked Inversion: A bit changes erroneously as the result of a

    change to a bit elsewhere in memory.



    Linked Inversion: A bit changes erroneously as the result of changes

    to two or more other bits elsewhere in memory.



    Unlinked Idempotent: A bit becomes stuck-at as the result of a change

    to a bit elsewhere in memory.



    Linked Idempotent: A bit becomes stuck-at as the result of changes to

    two or more other bits elsewhere in memory.



    RAMexam detects singular and multiple (coupled) occurrences of the

    above errors.



    From the basic display, RAMexam provides two testing options: Quick

    and Full. Selecting Quick is the same as choosing the transition

    fault test from the advanced display. Selecting Full is the sae as

    choosing the two idempotent tests from the advanced display. All

    tests can be accessed by name from the advanced display. Press

    ALT-Tab to toggle between basic and advanced displays.





    * Ways to Use RAMexam



    The Qualitas Memory Tester may be used several ways:



    * You can run RAMexam every time you boot your system by including

    RAMexam in your AUTOEXEC.BAT. When running RAMexam this way, you

    should use the command line switch for a "Quick" test. Use RSetup to

    configure your system this way automatically. Running RAMexam at

    system start-up adds between a few seconds and a few minutes to the

    time it takes to boot your system, depending on how much memory you

    have and the speed of your system.



    * You can run RAMexam as often as you like from the DOS prompt by

    typing RAMexam and pressing enter. Once RAMexam is running, select

    the test(s) you wish to run.



    * RAMexam can test available memory only (you wouldn't want RAMexam

    to write over memory in use by another program). For extensive

    testing, you can use RAMexam on a "clean" system without resident

    software such as disk caches, RAM disks and memory managers active.

    Running RAMexam with no other software active is the most effective

    way to test your system. The program MAKEBOOT.EXE creates a bootable

    floppy for this purpose. If you are using MS-DOS 6 MultiConfig or

    similar utility then you may wish to create a clean boot configur-

    ation which executes the following line:



    d:\path\RAMexam FULL=1



    where d: is the drive on which RAMexam is installed and path is the

    directory. This provides an easy way to test your system memory

    fully.



    To start RAMexam, you must be in the RAMexam directory or it must be

    included in your DOS search path.





    * A Note for OS/2 Users



    RAMexam can test the memory on systems that run OS/2. In fact,

    RAMexam tests RAM on any Intel 386, 486 or Pentium-compatible

    microprocessor or above regardless of the operating system. First,

    you need access to a system running DOS so you can install RAMexam on

    that system and use MAKEBOOT.EXE to create a bootable test diskette.

    (MAKEBOOT does not run in an OS/2 DOS session because OS/2 does not

    support the necessary DOS SYS.COM command.) Once you have your

    bootable diskette use it as described above. Remember to observe

    copyright restrictions and use DOS and RAMexam only on the systems for

    which they are licensed.





    * Navigating RAMexam



    There are two RAMexam displays available, Basic and Advanced. When

    RAMexam starts, it displays the Basic screen. Three windows make up

    the Basic display. The window in the upper left corner of the screen

    displays the program name and copyright. The window in the upper

    right portion of the screen displays two buttons labeled Quick and

    Full. Select the desired test using the right and left cursor (arrow)

    keys. Press enter to start the test. The third window, centered in

    the bottom half of the screen, displays test progress.



    RAMexam's Advanced screen is for users who want to see the nuts and

    bolts of memory testing. Users may switch between the Advanced and

    Basic screens using Alt-Tab (even while testing).



    There are four windows on the Advanced display, one of which (in the

    top, left corner) is the same as in the Basic display.



    The Test Selection window, in the top right corner of the screen,

    displays the names of the six different memory tests. Each test name

    is followed by a field in which you may enter the number of times

    RAMexam should run the test. Enter "C" to instruct RAMexam to run the

    test continually until interrupted by the user.



    The Memory to Test window, in the lower left corner of the screen,

    displays the memory regions which RAMexam has identified. Regions

    displayed in gray are in use by other software (such as a disk cache)

    or are not physically present and cannot be tested.



    The Test Status window appears in the lower right corner and includes

    the estimated time to test completion. While running, RAMexam reads

    and writes (abbreviated in the display as "Rd" and "Wr") various test

    patterns into memory. This activity appears in the Status window.



    Keyboard Overview



    The following keys are available in both Basic and Advanced screens:



    F1 displays help

    F5 toggles between color and monochrome displays

    ESC if a test is in progress, halts test, otherwise exits

    RAMexam



    The following keys are available while viewing the Basic display:



    ALT-Tab switches to the Advanced display (use F9 on 83-key keyboards)

    Cursor alternates between highlighting Quick and Full buttons

    Enter starts testing



    The following keys are available while viewing the Advanced display:



    ALT-Tab switches to the Basic display (use F9 on 83-key keyboards)

    Cursor selects test

    Ctrl-Enter runs the highlighted test once

    H displays values in hexadecimal format

    D displays values in decimal format

    Tab moves cursor between Test Selection window and Memory

    to Test window if there are more memory entries than

    fit in a single screen. When in the Memory to Test

    window the cursor keys scroll the list up and down.



    The following keys are available while viewing the Help display:



    F2 prints help topic(s)

    F3 displays previous help topic

    F4 displays next help topic

    ESC returns to help menu





    * A Memory Error! Now What?



    If you are fortunate, RAMexam will never find a memory error on your

    system. When RAMexam detects defective or damaged RAM then the test

    halts and a red warning box appears with all known information about

    the error.



    Unfortunately, RAMexam cannot tell you which chip is the culprit.

    Software accesses memory through special hardware that is responsible

    for addressing the individual chips. There is information within this

    hardware that maps the memory address used by software to a physical

    bit within a chip. This information is not accessible to software and

    varies widely from system to system. Should RAMexam detect defective

    RAM, here are the recommended steps to take:



    * See if the error is reproducible. If a memory error only happens

    once and cannot be reproduced it may not be cause for alarm.

    Occasionally, alpha particle radiation -- which may not recur -- can

    cause memory failure.



    * If the memory error recurs, take your system to a qualified repair

    facility. Virtually every system manufacturer uses a unique memory

    architecture so that it is impossible for RAMexam to identify specific

    memory chips to replace. DO NOT ATTEMPT TO REPLACE YOUR RAM UNLESS

    YOU ARE QUALIFIED. (If you are not sure if you are qualified then you

    probably are not.) All error information is saved into the RAMexam

    log file in the RAMexam directory.



    * Diagnosis of memory errors, beyond that offered by RAMexam,

    requires hands-on interaction with the problem system. It also

    frequently requires special equipment. For these reasons, Qualitas

    Technical Support cannot assist you in locating faulty memory chips.

    You should contact a Qualitas technician only if you believe that

    RAMexam itself is not functioning correctly.





    * How to Avoid Memory Errors



    As with most of life, a byte of prevention is worth a megabyte of

    cure. Maintaining a proper environment for your PC can significantly

    reduce the chance of memory failure. Here are some tips:



    * Work in a dust free environment.



    * Keep pets away from computer work areas.



    * Do not smoke in the same room as your PC.



    * Plug your PC into its own electrical circuit.



    * Use a surge protector or, even better, an uninterruptable power

    supply (UPS).



    * If you use a modem or fax board, make sure that you use a

    telephone line surge protector.



    * Never touch the inside of your PC without first grounding

    yourself.



    Even with these precautions, there is no guarantee that RAM will not

    fail. RAM testing, though, significantly reduces the risk of losing

    work to defective RAM.





    * Command Line Options



    ? display help



    ADVANCED start execution in advanced mode



    ALL=n run all tests n times



    ASK[=timeout,response]

    prompt for action to take, with a default response to

    be used after time-out seconds:



    Y (Yes) run RAMexam

    N (No) skip test and wait until next

    scheduled occurrence

    P (Postpone) skip test; ask again later



    BW or /B force black & white display



    COLOR or /C force color display



    DAILY run RAMexam only if it has not been run since midnight



    FULL=n run Full tests n times



    HEX display data initially in hexadecimal mode



    INTERVAL=n run RAMexam only if at least n days have expired

    since the last time RAMexam was run



    K avoid spurious keyboard lockups



    L use larger of BIOS and CMOS sizes if they differ



    LNKIDM=n run Linked Idempotent Coupling Fault Test n times



    LNKINV=n run Linked Inversion Coupling Fault Test n times



    LOG[=filename][,o]

    append a log entry to RAMEXAM.LOG or other filename

    and use o to overwrite any existing file of the same

    name



    MONTHLY[=date] run RAMexam only if it has not run in the last month

    - if optional date is specified, RAMexam runs on or

    after that day of the month (1-31)



    NODPMI do not use DOS Protected Mode Interface



    NOEXIT do not exit after running tests automatically



    NOPARITY avoid spurious parity errors on certain systems



    NOVCPI do not use Vitrual Control Program Interface



    NOXRAM do not recover extra memory



    QUICK=n run Quick tests n times



    S use smaller of BIOS and CMOS sizes if they differ



    SAF=n run Stuck-At Fault Test n times



    TF=n run Transition Fault Test n times



    TOP384 recover 384KB COMPAQ-like memory



    UNLIDM=n run Unlinked Idempotent Coupling Fault Test n times



    UNLINV=n run Unlinked Inversion Coupling Fault Test n times



    V avoid lockups on certain VLSI chipsets (82C480)



    WEEKLY[=day] run RAMexam only if it has not been run in the last

    week - if optional day is specified, RAMexam runs on

    or after that day of the week (Sunday=1, Monday=2,

    etc.)



    * * * *



    (C) Copyright 1997-9 Qualitas



    Qualitas is a registered trademark and RAMexam is a trademark of

    Qualitas. All other products are trademarks of their respective

    owners.




    ...

    "Frank" <> wrote in message
    news:T74Eb.42591$...
    > From what I saw of Ramex by Qualitas, it would not work for me. They have

    no
    > tech support phone number, or even an address for snail mail. They don't
    > even provide an on-line manual.
    >
    >
    > "Thor" <> wrote in message
    > news:...
    > >
    > > "Diehard" <> wrote in message
    > > news:qegDb.509$...
    > > >
    > > > "Frank" <> wrote in message
    > > > news:UnaDb.40835$...
    > > > > How could I test my system memory.?
    > > > > Do I need to buy a utility program.?
    > > > > I'm operating a P4 Dell with XP (home) and have 512mb rdram. The

    ram
    > is
    > > > > divided up by 4 memory cards, 128mb each. I'm looking to reassure

    > > myself
    > > > > that all 4 cards are each 100% good.
    > > > >
    > > > >
    > > >
    > > > the problem with mem test is it doesn't do any good. i had bad ram i

    > knew
    > > > was bad cus i couldnt install windows xp with it, and tried memtest

    > which
    > > > said the ram was fine, but it was not.

    > >
    > >
    > > It depends on the problem. Memtest may not be able to determine a

    problem
    > > that has arisen out of compatibility problems, etc. But memory testing
    > > programs can be very good diagnostic tools. I use Qualitas Ramexam. It's

    a
    > > retail program, but every time I've had faulty memory in a system, I was
    > > able to confirm it with that program.
    > >
    > >

    >
    >
    Thor, Dec 18, 2003
    #7
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