Question...

Discussion in 'NZ Computing' started by Matthew Poole, Apr 25, 2005.

  1. In article <pan.2005.04.25.07.31.45.300997@TRACKER>, Bling-Bling <> wrote:
    >Hiya, y'all.
    >
    >How does one add more space to a directory such as /home [linux] or
    >/usr/home [FreeBSD] when the partition that is mounted in that part of
    >the file tree is nearly full?
    >

    *SNIP*
    >What is the process that one should follow to do this?
    >

    FreeBSD has vinum, which seems to be able to do this if the Handbook is
    accurate.
    http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/vinum-vinum.
    html

    --
    Matthew Poole
    "Veni, vidi, velcro...
    I came, I saw, I stuck around"

    My real e-mail is mattATp00leDOTnet
     
    Matthew Poole, Apr 25, 2005
    #1
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  2. Matthew Poole

    Bling-Bling Guest

    Hiya, y'all.

    How does one add more space to a directory such as /home [linux] or
    /usr/home [FreeBSD] when the partition that is mounted in that part of
    the file tree is nearly full?

    Is this something to do with Logical Volume Management? Or is this
    something else?

    IOW, how does one combine multiple partitions on multiple physical drives
    and have them appear as one directory?

    What is the process that one should follow to do this?


    Bling Bling

    --
    IBM: "Linux is not just another operating system. It represents a
    collaboration of the best programmers in the industry coming together to
    create an operating system that works on any hardware platform."
     
    Bling-Bling, Apr 25, 2005
    #2
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  3. Matthew Poole

    Bling-Bling Guest

    On Mon, 25 Apr 2005 06:46:41 +0000, Matthew Poole wrote:

    > In article <pan.2005.04.25.07.31.45.300997@TRACKER>, Bling-Bling
    > <> wrote:
    >>Hiya, y'all.
    >>
    >>How does one add more space to a directory such as /home [linux] or
    >>/usr/home [FreeBSD] when the partition that is mounted in that part of
    >>the file tree is nearly full?
    >>

    > *SNIP*
    >>What is the process that one should follow to do this?
    >>

    > FreeBSD has vinum, which seems to be able to do this if the Handbook is
    > accurate.
    > http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/vinum-vinum.
    > html


    I was sorta hoping for maybe something simple(ish) like maybe a special
    way to place entries in /etc/fstab .

    When one has to add storage space to a file system (ie to a specific
    directory that already has stuff in it) what is the normal way to do this
    (without creating a subdirectory and mounting the new partition there)?


    Bling Bling

    --
    IBM: "Linux is not just another operating system. It represents a
    collaboration of the best programmers in the industry coming together to
    create an operating system that works on any hardware platform."
     
    Bling-Bling, Apr 25, 2005
    #3
  4. Matthew Poole

    Enkidu Guest

    Bling-Bling wrote:
    > Hiya, y'all.
    >
    > How does one add more space to a directory such as /home [linux] or
    > /usr/home [FreeBSD] when the partition that is mounted in that part of
    > the file tree is nearly full?
    >
    > Is this something to do with Logical Volume Management? Or is this
    > something else?
    >
    > IOW, how does one combine multiple partitions on multiple physical drives
    > and have them appear as one directory?
    >
    > What is the process that one should follow to do this?
    >

    1) create a new partition, say, /partx
    2) make a fs on it
    3) temporarily mount it on say, /mnt/partx
    4) copy a large directory in the /home partition to the new
    partition. eg /home/poweruser (Make sure you aren't using it
    at the time).
    5) unmount /mnt/partx
    6) mount /partx on /home/poweruser.

    Cheers,

    Cliff

    --

    Barzoomian the Martian - http://barzoomian.blogspot.com
     
    Enkidu, Apr 25, 2005
    #4
  5. Matthew Poole

    Enkidu Guest

    Enkidu wrote:
    > Bling-Bling wrote:
    >
    >> Hiya, y'all.
    >>
    >> How does one add more space to a directory such as /home [linux] or
    >> /usr/home [FreeBSD] when the partition that is mounted in that part of
    >> the file tree is nearly full?
    >>
    >> Is this something to do with Logical Volume Management? Or is this
    >> something else?
    >>
    >> IOW, how does one combine multiple partitions on multiple physical drives
    >> and have them appear as one directory?
    >>
    >> What is the process that one should follow to do this?
    >>

    > 1) create a new partition, say, /partx
    > 2) make a fs on it
    > 3) temporarily mount it on say, /mnt/partx
    > 4) copy a large directory in the /home partition to the new partition.
    > eg /home/poweruser (Make sure you aren't using it at the time).
    > 5) unmount /mnt/partx
    > 6) mount /partx on /home/poweruser.
    >

    7) edit fstab and add a line to mount the new partition at
    boot time.

    Cheers,

    Cliff

    --

    Barzoomian the Martian - http://barzoomian.blogspot.com
     
    Enkidu, Apr 25, 2005
    #5
  6. Matthew Poole

    Bling-Bling Guest

    On Mon, 25 Apr 2005 20:42:31 +1200, Enkidu wrote:

    > Bling-Bling wrote:
    >> Hiya, y'all.
    >>
    >> How does one add more space to a directory such as /home [linux] or
    >> /usr/home [FreeBSD] when the partition that is mounted in that part of
    >> the file tree is nearly full?
    >>
    >> Is this something to do with Logical Volume Management? Or is this
    >> something else?
    >>
    >> IOW, how does one combine multiple partitions on multiple physical drives
    >> and have them appear as one directory?
    >>
    >> What is the process that one should follow to do this?
    >>

    > 1) create a new partition, say, /partx
    > 2) make a fs on it
    > 3) temporarily mount it on say, /mnt/partx
    > 4) copy a large directory in the /home partition to the new
    > partition. eg /home/poweruser (Make sure you aren't using it
    > at the time).
    > 5) unmount /mnt/partx
    > 6) mount /partx on /home/poweruser.
    >
    > Cheers,
    >
    > Cliff


    Thanks alot, Cliff - appreciated. I'll remember this. It's a very simple
    solution.

    I wish to explore this a little further.

    My next (related) question is therefore this:


    If the contents of the directory/partition that is running out of space is
    either totally unorganised (ie has no subdirectories), or has a few
    extremely very large files, and it is desired to not add subdirectories or
    to move any of the files elseware, but one needs to add more storage space
    to that directory... how would one do that? Is that possible?


    Bling Bling

    --
    IBM: "Linux is not just another operating system. It represents a
    collaboration of the best programmers in the industry coming together to
    create an operating system that works on any hardware platform."
     
    Bling-Bling, Apr 25, 2005
    #6
  7. Matthew Poole

    Enkidu Guest

    Bling-Bling wrote:
    > On Mon, 25 Apr 2005 20:42:31 +1200, Enkidu wrote:
    >
    >
    >>Bling-Bling wrote:
    >>
    >>>Hiya, y'all.
    >>>
    >>>How does one add more space to a directory such as /home [linux] or
    >>>/usr/home [FreeBSD] when the partition that is mounted in that part of
    >>>the file tree is nearly full?
    >>>
    >>>Is this something to do with Logical Volume Management? Or is this
    >>>something else?
    >>>
    >>>IOW, how does one combine multiple partitions on multiple physical drives
    >>>and have them appear as one directory?
    >>>
    >>>What is the process that one should follow to do this?
    >>>

    >>
    >>1) create a new partition, say, /partx
    >>2) make a fs on it
    >>3) temporarily mount it on say, /mnt/partx
    >>4) copy a large directory in the /home partition to the new
    >>partition. eg /home/poweruser (Make sure you aren't using it
    >>at the time).
    >>5) unmount /mnt/partx
    >>6) mount /partx on /home/poweruser
    >>7) edit fstab for the new mount point.

    ..
    >>
    >>Cheers,
    >>
    >>Cliff

    >
    >
    > Thanks alot, Cliff - appreciated. I'll remember this. It's a very simple
    > solution.
    >
    > I wish to explore this a little further.
    >
    > My next (related) question is therefore this:
    >
    >
    > If the contents of the directory/partition that is running out of space is
    > either totally unorganised (ie has no subdirectories), or has a few
    > extremely very large files, and it is desired to not add subdirectories or
    > to move any of the files elseware, but one needs to add more storage space
    > to that directory... how would one do that? Is that possible?
    >

    In that case, I'd probably move the whole partition. Make a
    file system on a spare partition, mount it as /mnt/homex
    (mount /dev/hdax /mnt/homex), copy the current contents of
    /home to /mnt/homex, unmount /mnt/homex, unmount /home (if
    you can), mount /dev/hdax as /home (if you can), edit fstab
    to change the device for /home to the new partition.

    PLEASE don't just do this. Think it through, do tests, and
    ensure that you have left yourself a route to backout. Just
    remember that the preceeding stuff is straight off the top
    of my head.

    For instance, you might consider making a user whose home
    directory is not on /home (similar to root), so that you
    don't need /home to make repairs if necessary. I'd do some
    tests before I did the actual move, maybe with such a user.

    Cheers,

    Cliff

    --

    Barzoomian the Martian - http://barzoomian.blogspot.com
     
    Enkidu, Apr 25, 2005
    #7
  8. Matthew Poole

    Bling-Bling Guest

    On Mon, 25 Apr 2005 21:47:48 +1200, Enkidu wrote:

    >> My next (related) question is therefore this:
    >>
    >>
    >> If the contents of the directory/partition that is running out of space is
    >> either totally unorganised (ie has no subdirectories), or has a few
    >> extremely very large files, and it is desired to not add subdirectories or
    >> to move any of the files elseware, but one needs to add more storage space
    >> to that directory... how would one do that? Is that possible?
    >>

    > In that case, I'd probably move the whole partition. Make a
    > file system on a spare partition, mount it as /mnt/homex
    > (mount /dev/hdax /mnt/homex), copy the current contents of
    > /home to /mnt/homex, unmount /mnt/homex, unmount /home (if
    > you can), mount /dev/hdax as /home (if you can), edit fstab
    > to change the device for /home to the new partition.
    >
    > PLEASE don't just do this. Think it through, do tests, and
    > ensure that you have left yourself a route to backout. Just
    > remember that the preceeding stuff is straight off the top
    > of my head.
    >
    > For instance, you might consider making a user whose home
    > directory is not on /home (similar to root), so that you
    > don't need /home to make repairs if necessary. I'd do some
    > tests before I did the actual move, maybe with such a user.


    The above seems very similar to your answer to my previous question. ie
    create new (bigger) file system - mount it - copy data from (part of) old
    (smaller) file system - unmount new file system - mount new file system
    somewhere-within / instead-of old file system.

    Again I will remember the above simple/elegant solution - I can see some
    future uses for it.


    But what if the space you need is larger than what the BIOS will allow?

    The situation I'm thinking of is that I have an older box that cannot see
    all the space on an 80gig HDD - it can only see around 40gigs in total on
    each physical device. I'd like the home directory to have about, say,
    100gigs available to it (three HDDs and one CDROM) without needing to use
    subdirectories to add the additional space.

    I'm not sure if such a thing is possible.


    Bling Bling

    --
    IBM: "Linux is not just another operating system. It represents a
    collaboration of the best programmers in the industry coming together to
    create an operating system that works on any hardware platform."
     
    Bling-Bling, Apr 25, 2005
    #8
  9. Matthew Poole

    Robert Cooze Guest

    Bling-Bling wrote:
    > On Mon, 25 Apr 2005 21:47:48 +1200, Enkidu wrote:
    >
    >
    >>>My next (related) question is therefore this:
    >>>
    >>>
    >>>If the contents of the directory/partition that is running out of space is
    >>>either totally unorganised (ie has no subdirectories), or has a few
    >>>extremely very large files, and it is desired to not add subdirectories or
    >>>to move any of the files elseware, but one needs to add more storage space
    >>>to that directory... how would one do that? Is that possible?
    >>>

    >>
    >>In that case, I'd probably move the whole partition. Make a
    >>file system on a spare partition, mount it as /mnt/homex
    >>(mount /dev/hdax /mnt/homex), copy the current contents of
    >>/home to /mnt/homex, unmount /mnt/homex, unmount /home (if
    >>you can), mount /dev/hdax as /home (if you can), edit fstab
    >>to change the device for /home to the new partition.
    >>
    >>PLEASE don't just do this. Think it through, do tests, and
    >>ensure that you have left yourself a route to backout. Just
    >>remember that the preceeding stuff is straight off the top
    >>of my head.
    >>
    >>For instance, you might consider making a user whose home
    >>directory is not on /home (similar to root), so that you
    >>don't need /home to make repairs if necessary. I'd do some
    >>tests before I did the actual move, maybe with such a user.

    >
    >
    > The above seems very similar to your answer to my previous question. ie
    > create new (bigger) file system - mount it - copy data from (part of) old
    > (smaller) file system - unmount new file system - mount new file system
    > somewhere-within / instead-of old file system.
    >
    > Again I will remember the above simple/elegant solution - I can see some
    > future uses for it.
    >
    >
    > But what if the space you need is larger than what the BIOS will allow?
    >
    > The situation I'm thinking of is that I have an older box that cannot see
    > all the space on an 80gig HDD - it can only see around 40gigs in total on
    > each physical device. I'd like the home directory to have about, say,
    > 100gigs available to it (three HDDs and one CDROM) without needing to use
    > subdirectories to add the additional space.
    >
    > I'm not sure if such a thing is possible.
    >
    >
    > Bling Bling
    >

    Well I have had many boxen running this and that and old P133's that can
    not see any thing bigger than 8 gig have had 15,20,and 80 gig drives in
    em working fine the only thing is the boot drive running Linux was the
    only drive set up in Bios linux takes over and can see the big drive
    even from lilo :)

    --
    http://cooze.co.nz home of the RecyclerMan aka Robert Cooze

    / __/ / / / / /__ / / ___/ / __/ / / / |/ / /__ /
    / / / /_/ / / /_/ / _-' / __/ / / / /_/ / / /| / _-'
    ___\ ____/ ____/ /___/ /____/ /_/ ___\ ____/ /_/ /_/ |_/ /___/
     
    Robert Cooze, Apr 25, 2005
    #9
  10. Matthew Poole

    AD. Guest

    On Mon, 25 Apr 2005 20:52:52 +1200, Bling-Bling wrote:

    > If the contents of the directory/partition that is running out of space is
    > either totally unorganised (ie has no subdirectories), or has a few
    > extremely very large files, and it is desired to not add subdirectories or
    > to move any of the files elseware, but one needs to add more storage space
    > to that directory... how would one do that? Is that possible?


    I've never tried it, and it would probably just make things more painful
    later, but you could look into UnionFS.

    I'd recommend putting a lot of thought into whether that was what you
    really wanted to do though.

    Some times a taking backup and making a new larger filesystem would be the
    cleanest method.

    --
    Cheers
    Anton
     
    AD., Apr 25, 2005
    #10
  11. Bling-Bling wrote:
    > But what if the space you need is larger than what the BIOS will allow?


    get a new machine?
     
    Synaptic testing, Apr 26, 2005
    #11
  12. Matthew Poole

    Steve Guest

    "Bling-Bling" <> wrote in message
    news:pan.2005.04.25.07.31.45.300997@TRACKER...
    > Hiya, y'all.
    >
    > How does one add more space to a directory such as /home [linux] or
    > /usr/home [FreeBSD] when the partition that is mounted in that part of
    > the file tree is nearly full?
    >
    > Is this something to do with Logical Volume Management? Or is this
    > something else?
    >
    > IOW, how does one combine multiple partitions on multiple physical drives
    > and have them appear as one directory?
    >
    > What is the process that one should follow to do this?
    >
    >
    > Bling Bling
    >
    > --
    > IBM: "Linux is not just another operating system. It represents a
    > collaboration of the best programmers in the industry coming together to
    > create an operating system that works on any hardware platform."
    >

    Under linux, lvm will do what you're after. You'll need to have a lot of
    spare space to do it with, as you can't do this with partitions that have
    live data on and expect to keep it. You are also a bit limited to the
    filesystems that you can use. I don't think that reiser can support resizing
    of partitions.

    Mind you, looking at your later posts, I think you should start again with
    new hardware anyway :)

    Steve
     
    Steve, Apr 26, 2005
    #12
  13. In article <pan.2005.04.25.07.31.45.300997@TRACKER>,
    Bling-Bling <> wrote:

    >How does one add more space to a directory such as /home [linux] or
    >/usr/home [FreeBSD] when the partition that is mounted in that part of
    >the file tree is nearly full?


    If you aren't already using LVM, but you can add a new disk to the
    machine, you can move some directories from the nearly-full partition to
    the new area, and symlink them back to their old location.

    E.g. assume that /home/largeuser is using lots of space, and you'd like
    to move that to a new disk. Once you've set up the new disk, choose a
    mount point for it, e.g. /home/extra. Set up the new entry in
    /etc/fstab. Then do something like

    mv /home/largeuser /home/extra/largeuser
    ln -s /home/extra/largeuser /home/largeuser

    Most things should work just as they did before.
     
    Lawrence D’Oliveiro, Apr 26, 2005
    #13
  14. Matthew Poole

    Bling-Bling Guest

    On Tue, 26 Apr 2005 10:37:19 +1200, AD. wrote:

    > On Mon, 25 Apr 2005 20:52:52 +1200, Bling-Bling wrote:
    >
    >> If the contents of the directory/partition that is running out of space is
    >> either totally unorganised (ie has no subdirectories), or has a few
    >> extremely very large files, and it is desired to not add subdirectories or
    >> to move any of the files elseware, but one needs to add more storage space
    >> to that directory... how would one do that? Is that possible?

    >
    > I've never tried it, and it would probably just make things more painful
    > later, but you could look into UnionFS.
    >
    > I'd recommend putting a lot of thought into whether that was what you
    > really wanted to do though.
    >
    > Some times a taking backup and making a new larger filesystem would be the
    > cleanest method.


    I agree with you.

    I wasn't sure if what I was suggesting was possible, or if it were
    possible whether it was sensible or practical.

    I think that Cliff's suggestions make good sense. I'm just exploring what
    is possible to do with file systems.


    Bling Bling

    --
    IBM: "Linux is not just another operating system. It represents a
    collaboration of the best programmers in the industry coming together to
    create an operating system that works on any hardware platform."
     
    Bling-Bling, Apr 26, 2005
    #14
  15. Matthew Poole

    Bling-Bling Guest

    On Tue, 26 Apr 2005 12:07:00 +1200, Steve wrote:

    > Mind you, looking at your later posts, I think you should start again with
    > new hardware anyway :)


    That's OK - that box, and the router box, are next on the upgrade list -
    and I'm gradually assembling the components to put together my next box.


    Bling Bling

    --
    IBM: "Linux is not just another operating system. It represents a
    collaboration of the best programmers in the industry coming together to
    create an operating system that works on any hardware platform."
     
    Bling-Bling, Apr 26, 2005
    #15
  16. Matthew Poole

    Bling-Bling Guest

    On Tue, 26 Apr 2005 21:48:56 +1200, Lawrence D’Oliveiro wrote:

    > In article <pan.2005.04.25.07.31.45.300997@TRACKER>,
    > Bling-Bling <> wrote:
    >
    >>How does one add more space to a directory such as /home [linux] or
    >>/usr/home [FreeBSD] when the partition that is mounted in that part of
    >>the file tree is nearly full?

    >
    > If you aren't already using LVM, but you can add a new disk to the
    > machine, you can move some directories from the nearly-full partition to
    > the new area, and symlink them back to their old location.
    >
    > E.g. assume that /home/largeuser is using lots of space, and you'd like
    > to move that to a new disk. Once you've set up the new disk, choose a
    > mount point for it, e.g. /home/extra. Set up the new entry in
    > /etc/fstab. Then do something like
    >
    > mv /home/largeuser /home/extra/largeuser
    > ln -s /home/extra/largeuser /home/largeuser
    >
    > Most things should work just as they did before.


    Yes - agreed. But I think that it would be simpler to simply mount the new
    space on a subdirectory within the original directory.

    I feel that your suggestion, and Cliff's suggestions, are the only
    straight forward solution to my question.


    Bling Bling

    --
    IBM: "Linux is not just another operating system. It represents a
    collaboration of the best programmers in the industry coming together to
    create an operating system that works on any hardware platform."
     
    Bling-Bling, Apr 26, 2005
    #16
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