Notes from Final Cut tutorial "Essential Editing"

Discussion in 'DVD Video' started by dh@., Nov 10, 2008.

  1. dh@.

    dh@. Guest

    I recently (finally) got through taking notes on a Final Cut
    tutorial by Larry Jordan called "Essential Editing". Hopefully
    if a person watches the tutorial and reads along it will make
    it a lot easier to go back and put it all together least
    I'm hoping it will help me do it. Here are the notes:

    Organize Files
    store projects and related files on boot drive
    store media and scratch disk folder on separate hard drive

    03_02 Choosing Setup
    find Choose Setup window and set Primary Scratch Disk to 2nd drive. If there's
    a folder called Final Cut Pro Documents, FC will automatically put it there and
    link to everything in it. SD 16:9 is Anamorphic, 4:3 is DV NTSC, if you don't know
    use DV NTSC.

    03_03 Scratch disk Is where media and render files are stored. Never store
    media files on boot drive. Final Cut Pro, System Settings, set all to 2nd drive,
    check all 4 boxes. He called Minimum Allowable Free Space On Scratch Disks
    Maximum... and said to set it for 10000 MB, and Limit Capture Now to 2 minutes
    longer than the longest capture if you're going to use it but he suggests not using
    it and leaving it unchecked. Still in System Settings go to Search Folders, Set,
    2nd Drive, Final Cu...cuments, Choose. Still in Sys... open Memory and Cache,
    if you have more than a Gig of Ram set Application to 90% (FC won't recognize
    more than 4G), don't go above 15% for Still Cache.

    03_04 Changing Setups
    To make setup changes go to Final Cut Pro, Easy Setup, or for more advanced
    go to Audio/Video Settings. Changing sequence settings can screw you up.

    03_05 User Preferences
    Final Cut Pro, User Preferences, General. Level of Undo example 25, Audio
    Playback Quality Low is good. If using firewire 400 drive set Limit real-time video
    to 22, for 800 use 42, SATA, RAID or network leave off. Editing sometimes adjust
    Still/Freeze Duration. Timeline Options sets it for 2 Video tracks. Use Drop Frame
    for DV. You have to close Final Cut for changes to go into effect.

    03_06 Trashing Preferences
    Don't trash unless FCP doesn't work, and never while it's running. Trash these:, Final Cut Pro 6.0 Prefs, Fi... Obj Cache, Fi... Prof Cache
    Go, Home, Library, Preferences, scroll down to first, highlight, Com Delete
    (bigger key), scroll down to Final Cut Pro User Data and the other three are in
    there (never trash entire folders), Finder, Empty Trash. Will need to reset

    04_03 Navigation
    u d l r arrows..., J reverses, K stops, L goes forward, JJ/LL = x2...x4, J/K L/K
    = reverse/forward at 1/3. Absolute Time Code Reference set in window to left
    and hit Enter. Shift/Z sets sequence to fit timeline window. Can move by +/-
    then enter time w/keypad and hit Enter.

    04_04 Timecode
    HD and PAL have one type of timecode called Timecode. NTSC has two:
    dropframe and nondropframe. When color came to television it added 3/100
    of a second, adding 4 seconds and 20 frames per hour to nondrop. Dropframe
    drops timecode numbers, not frames. A semi-colan indicates dropframe which
    is used in DV, broadcast, cablecast or anywhere that the timing needs to be
    accurate. Nondrop is used for commercials, anything shot in 24 frame, anything
    going to film or wherever the time isn't that significant. Dropframe drops the first
    two frame timecode numbers of every minute, so there is no ; 00 or ; 01.

    04_05 Customize windows
    Window, Arrange. Put cursor between two frames, or four. Control U sets default.
    Changed browser size. Window, Arrange, Save Window Layout to save. They're
    saved in Library, Preferences, Final Cut Pro User Data, Window Layouts.
    Holding down Option and Command lets you drag any window anyplace. The
    browser has over 50 can put a check in Good, enter text notes
    in Log Note, change column width by dragging header, add label by right clicking
    in Label, can reposition columns by dragging headers, holding Control and
    clicking brings up menu to Show/Hide column etc, you can change the name of
    a column that says "Comment" by Control clicking, Edit Heading and also add
    comments by double clicking in the column where you want to put one. To show
    thumbnails Control click Reel, then scroll down to Show Thumbnail. click
    thumbnail and drag back and forth to watch, can change poster frame by finding
    the shot you want and then hold Control key down as you release the mouse.
    To save layout right click in header and select Save Column Layout.

    Note from 13_05: set Viewer and Canvas to fit window, top center left button or
    Shift Z.

    04_06 Customize timeline
    Can change height with bar chart in lower left corner. Can show audio waveform
    by clicking arrow beside it. Zoom in on some frames and hit arrow to select
    filmstrips. Can change height by dragging. Holding Option and dragging will
    change all audio or all video, holding Shift changes everything. Can use arrow
    menu to save in Track Layouts. Shift Z resets everything to fit. Tools, Button
    List, example typed fit and chose fit to window, drag to Button Bar, Control click
    lets you change appearance. Every window has a Button Bar. Keyboard Layout,
    Customize, to view and change shortcuts. FCPro, User Prefs, Labels, example
    change Alternate Shots to Used Shot. Find in Browser, Control click, Label,
    select. To see label in Browser but not timeline bring up arrow menu and uncheck
    Show Clip Labels.

    Notes from 09_02: Shift Opt Z sets highlighted area to fit (Time Line window).
    Z key selects magnifier and clicking zooms in, Opt Z or clicking zooms out.
    Opt +/- zooms in and out. Can draw rectangle to zoom that area. Cmd +/- zooms
    selected Time Line, Viewer or Canvas window.

    04_08 View Menu
    If you ever can't see video outputting to deck try Refresh A/V Devices and if that
    doesn't work go to External Video and select All Frames. If you want to see the
    video full screen on monitor go to Video Playback and select Digital Cinema
    Desktop Preview - Main, all keyboard shortcuts still work. After setting it you
    can toggle into it with Command F12 and out with Esc.

    05_02 Setting Ins and Outs
    Create and name a new sequence, example: space "Seq - . . . ", so being
    alphabetical all sequences will go to the top. To load sequence to timeline
    double click. To close Control click on tab and choose Close Tab. Doing that
    on project tab in Browser will close project and ask if you want to save changes.
    Shift Command [ makes frames to left active... Load clip in viewer by double clicking,
    dragging, or highlighting in Browser and hitting Return key then play with Shuttle
    Bar and Jog Wheel. Arrow keys and typing letters will select things in Browser.
    Set Ins and Outs with In/Out buttons in viewer's lower toolbar or type I for in and
    O for out. Can click/drag to change position. Also after setting In you can highlight
    and set specific time in Duration Dialog (time window) and hit Enter(?), which is
    good for matching to music. Up arrow key goes to in and Down goes to out. There
    are In, Out, In to Out and Play Around buttons in Viewer, In keyboard sc is Shift \
    and Play Around is just \ .

    05_03 Getting Clips to Timeline
    Open clip to viewer, set Ins and Outs, do not drag to timeline but to canvas where
    menu will pop up, choose Overwrite (if asked to change sequence settings to match
    clip settings choose yes). Also can drag to red envelope, click on red envelope, or
    hit F10. Insert works the same way, hit F9. When dragging, releasing above the
    grey line is an Insert and below it is an Overwrite.

    05_05 Backtime Edit
    Set Out on timeline and in view window and set playhead where you want clip to
    begin on timeline, but don't set any Ins. Edit to timeline as Overwrite.

    05_06 Replace Edit
    Set playhead where you want it in viewer, don't set any Ins or Outs, Option X gets
    rid of/adds Ins and Outs, set playhead in middle of frame to be replaced in timeline,
    drag to Replace option on canvas, hit blue button, or hit F11.
    Note: blue button is programable.

    05_07 Fit to Fill Edit
    Put playhead on frame to replace in timeline and type X to highlight and set In and
    Out. Must set Ins and Outs in both viewer clip and timeline. Fit to Fill always
    changes the viewer clip speed to match time in timeline. Zooming timeline view
    shows percentage of change made to clip.

    05_08 Storyboard Edit
    Bring up menu in Browser and choose View...Icons to see what clips look like. Can
    double click on icons to set Ins and Outs and change time. Select Arrow from Tool
    Pallet and drag icons into the order you want in a group, the next one on each line
    slightly lower than the one before it on that line. Highlight all and drag to Overwrite,
    or Overwrite with Transition to add dissolve

    In Tool Pallette Zoom has 4 options. Scrub Tool lets you drag across icons to see
    them move, drag side to side or up and down. Find spot you want, hold Control
    and release to re-set icon's Poster Frame.

    05_09 Open Format Timeline
    To see change details when moving clips changes their format, double click in
    timeline to get in viewer, and open Motions tab. To adjust scaling go to FCP menu,
    User Preferences, Editing, check/uncheck Always scale clips... It will always
    scale down, but when unchecked won't scale up. See also Auto conform sequence

    Highlight sequence in Browser, go to Sequence in toolbar, Settings, Anamorphic
    is 16:9, uncheck for 4:3

    06_02 Subclips
    Set Ins and Outs, Modify, Make Subclip. Can use markers - Mark, DV Start/Stop
    Detection will detect wherever Record button was pressed when DV media was
    being loaded. Marked areas will show up as a list under icon in Browser. Can be
    made into subclips. Also when dragged into a new folder they become subclips.

    To view actual media - View, Reveal in Finder
    To make new folder - Ctl click, New Bin or File, New, Bin

    06_03 Editing Subclips
    Can put In/Out markers to include several clips and then make a subclip Sequence
    from that group. To see the full clip a subclip came from load to Viewer, Modify,
    Remove Subclip Limits

    07_02 Clip Markers
    Can get rid of all markers by putting clip in Viewer, Mark, Markers, Delete All. To
    make Timeline markers make sure no clips are selected. Bring up Marker Edit
    Window by typing M. Control clicking in Scrubber Bar brings up window for moving
    to specific markers. To move markers Mark, Markers, Reposition. Markers will only
    move to right. To delete bring up Marker Edit Window. Ctl ~ deletes all markers.

    Move audio timeline to Viewer - by double clicking

    Shift Z expands clips to fit Timeline window by making them either bigger or smaller

    07_03 Special Markers
    Chapter markers are general markers that will transfer to MPG/DVD. MPG has 3
    different kinds of frames. An I frame is a complete image. B and P frames are text
    describing pixels. In IBP compression you can only set markers and timecode on I
    frames which in NTSC only occur every 15 frames. A compression marker forces
    an I frame. Making an I frame in the middle of a shot can improve image quality.
    Scoring markers are audio.

    08_02 Selecting Clips
    Can drag a rectangle around them. Cmd A selects all. Highlight Shift highlight
    selects between. Holding down Cmd key allows you to select randomly. The Track
    Selection Tool is third from top in Tool Pallet. Holding Cmd and selecting creates
    edit points. Range Selection Tool is in second from top in Tool Pallet.

    08_03 Deleting Clips
    A Arrow Tool. Lift Delete - Big Del Key or Sequence, Lift, leaves Timeline Gap.
    Ripple Delete - Shift Del Key or Sequence, Ripple Delete. To delete a gap
    highlight and hit Del. If that's not allowed with a Track Delete (as opposed to a
    Timeline Delete) type X to set Ins and Outs and do it that way. If the clip (or gap?)
    is not highlighted it will delete the whole Timeline section. If it is highlighted it will
    just delete the clip (or gap?). Use Range Selection Tool to shift everything to fill
    in gap. To add Black like at the end of something open Generator Menu with
    letter A in lower left corner of Viewer and select Slug.

    08_04 Moving Clips
    Can drag and it will overwrite. Drag and then hold down Opt key, when left side is
    where you want it release mouse. That's called a Swap Edit. To move straight up or
    down hold Opt and use Up/Down Arrow keys. Doing that also can create additional

    When you copy and paste a clip it will stay on the same track unless you change the
    Auto Select Lights after selecting the will go to lowest track whose AS Light
    is dark. To select a track Opt click on light on track you want. Opt clicking again turns
    all lights on. Opt Shift dragging up and down duplicates clip while keeping it lined up.
    Opt drag releasing duplicates making an Insert Edit. Opt drag release Opt then
    release mouse for Overwrite.

    08_06 Match Frames
    Putting playhead on clip and typing F loads to Viewer with In/Out creating a Match
    Frame. Loading from Timeline to Viewer puts Sprocket Holes in Scrubber Bar.
    Loading from Browser does not. Changing things in clips loaded from Browser
    doesn't effect affiliated clips in Timeline. Opt Com F loads from Timeline to Viewer
    without In/Out. Rename in Browser, Modify, Rename, File to Match Clip (in Browser).
    View, Reveal in Finder to check. If you change name in Finder to reconnect File,
    Reconnect Media, if deleted select Skip File. To find yourself select Locate, uncheck
    Matched Name and Reel Only, find what you want to link to, Choose, Connect. To
    fix name Modify, Rename, Clip to Match File. To change which track gets priority
    use AS Lights. Shift F locates master clip in Browser.

    Note from 12_03: cannot trim when Sprocket Holes are visible.

    08_07 Duplicates
    To see duplicate frames in clip open menu with right arrow in lower left corner of
    Timeline and choose Show Duplicate Frames. If for some reason it includes
    something not the same highlight all and go to Edit, Item Properties, Format
    (Com 9), Logging Info to see if Reel No and Time Code are all the same. If so go
    back and highlight different clip, go to Logging Info and change Reel No.

    09_02 Three Sides To An Edit
    Turn off Green Visibility Light to Mute Audio. Snapping moves playhead to edit
    point when it gets within 15 frames. Turn on and off with double ** button in
    upper right corner of Time Line window, or the N key toggles it on and off. Using
    Arrow Tool to drag edit points allows you to watch it in Canvas window. \ key
    moves playhead back a few seconds. B or BB is Razor Tool. Ctl V slices through
    all tracks. See zooming notes in 04_06.

    Note from 09_03: to change settings for \ key FCP, User Prefs, Editing, Preview
    Note from 12_05: turn Snapping off to trim.

    09_03 Ripple Tool
    In Tool Pallette, fourth down - Ripple Tool trims In or Out of an edit and Roll Tool
    trims both. R key is Roll Tool and RR is Ripple Tool. Dragging Ripple Tool brings
    up two windows in Canvas.

    09_04 Roll Tool
    Roll Tool edits Out of one clip and In of next, bringing up both windows in Canvas.

    09_05 Ten Ways To Trim
    V key jumps playhead to edit point. U toggles between three sides of edit point.
    Tapping Comma key trims to left and Period key to right, also [ ] keys. Shift [
    etc moves multiple frames. To adjust FCP, User Prefs, Editing, Multi-Frame
    Trim Size. E key moves edit point to position of Play Head. Select edit point
    +/-, keypad #, Enter moves it by frame. Selecting nothing keypad moves Play
    Head. Selecting a clip keypad moves clip. Can load from Time Line to Viewer
    and trim with Ripple and Roll Tools. Asymmetric edit trims video one way and
    audio another by Opt clicking video and Com clicking opposite audio. Can
    Lock Tracks to make changes to some and not others with padlock on left.
    Linked Selection button in top right of TL window links/unlinks tracks. That
    can get things out of sync. To get back in Ctl click on red flag and choose
    Move Into Sync. Leave Linked Selection button on. Instead holding Opt key
    and Rolling lets you move either video or audio without getting out of sync.

    1. Razor, Arrow 2. Ripple, Roll 3. V, U , . [ ] 4. Shift , . [ ] 5. E key.
    6. Keypad. 7. in Viewer 8. asymmetric 9. with Opt key 10. Trim edit

    09_06 Trim Edit
    Window, click Viewer(?), Arrange, Two Up to change size of viewer. Double
    clicking on edit point opens Trim Edit window in Viewer/Canvas. Green bar
    above windows indicates what's selected. Note Trim Forward/Back buttons
    in top center of TL. Check Dynamic Box between them and typing K will put
    edit point where Play Head is, J backs the clip up, and L plays in real time.
    K sets In if In's selected, Out if Out is, and Roll if both. Hit spacebar to pre-view.
    To close Trim Edit window click anywhere in TL.

    09_07 Slip Edit
    The Slip Tool, 5th from top in Tool Pallet, 1st selection, keeps duration and TL
    position the same but moves In and Out simultaneously slipping back and forth
    within a clip changing its content. S key. Works best when clip is loaded to
    Viewer. Slide Tool moves clip back and forth in TL without changing content.

    10_02 Dynamic
    RT Menu in upper left corner of TL. Safe RT uses highest quality. Unlimited RT
    allows some lesser quality during editing playback so that added effects etc
    don't make it want to render. Playback Video Quality and Frame Rate should
    be set to Dynamic. This only affects editing playback. Output is always of highest
    quality. Note: set Frame Rate to Quarter if being projected.

    10_03 Creating Multiclip
    Highlight clips in Browser, Modify, Make Multiclip. To sync playhead in Viewer
    and TL together open center small menu in Viewer and select Sync Open.
    Sprocket Holes indicate sync. Green box around video window indicates where
    audio is coming from. Open menu and select Audio (may have to click), then
    click in window that contains audio. Open menu again, select Video and click
    on window you want to open with. Select Audio first when there's one audio
    source but several vids. Do opposite if vice versa. When that's done go to TL and
    hit Home to set.

    10_04 Changing
    Can add clip to multiclip by dragging from Browser...wait for pop-up menu and
    select Insert New Angle. Can drag to change positions by holding Cmd.
    Note: There's more but it looks like a multi camera function, so I'll get back to it
    if ever... 10_02 explains how to sync cameras if you don't have time code.
    Skipping rest of 10.

    11_02 Transitions
    Highlight where you want want and hit Com T to create a default transition.
    Can drag it longer or shorter. Best to turn Snap off. Clicking on center opens
    Trim Edit window. To delete highlight and hit Del key. Opt Com T creates audio

    11_03 Effects Menu
    Click where you want transition, Effects, Video Transitions. Things in bold
    type can be added in real time. Not bold needs rendering. Double clicking on
    a wing of the transition (not the center) opens the Transition Editor. Can
    change duration. Example: Changed to 1 second and 20 frames simply by
    typing 120. The three center buttons let you start, center or end the wipe at
    the edit point. When centered you can drag where In/Out ripple, or Roll by
    dragging center. Dragging edge makes it shorter or longer. Using Start/End
    % windows you can hold end of transition by entering 50%. Width is the
    border. Can change color from color wheel or by Sampling color from clip
    using the arrow. Feather Edges just gives a soft look and is controlled by
    the Width slider. The red X at center right restores default. Grab the Hand
    in upper right corner and drag it anywhere else you want that transition.

    11_04 Effects Tab
    The last transition used will always be the first one under the Effects Menu and
    Video Transitions (in that menu). Clock Dial changes angle of wipes. Can add
    that transition wherever by Opt dragging, which lets you end, center or start at
    edit point. Can also use Effects Tab located in Browser window, drag to where
    you want it with option to begin, center or end. Effects Tab is same as Effects
    Menu but with ability to drag.

    11_05 Favorites
    To save as a favorite load to Transition Editor, Effects, Make Favorite Effect.
    Favorites are stored in Preferences, and when you trash Prefs you lose Favs.
    To work around drag Favs folder to Project folder and it will be saved, then
    you can drag it back to Effects if you want to later.

    11_06 Defaults
    Can grab tabs and move windows around. Look for heavy black line when
    replacing. He likes 20 frame video cross dissolve and 5 frame audio crossfade
    +3dB. Video Transitions, Dissolve, Cross Dissolve (or whatever), then Effects,
    Set Default. Similar to change audio.

    11_07 Applying Default Transitions To Multiple Edit Points
    Put Play Head where you want the first transition, highlight everywhere you want it
    from there on, drag to Canvas and drop on Overwrite With Transition.

    11_08 Render
    Sequence, Render Selection, check all then use Com R. To see it before
    rendering put Play Head just before transition and type Opt P.

    Note from summary: Effects Menu applies transition to either edit point or position
    of playhead.

    12_02 Clips (Audio)
    To change window settings: Window, Arrange, Two Up. When clip names in
    Time Line are underlined it means they're linked. Double click to load to viewer.
    Set Ins and Outs with I/O keys.

    12_03 Viewer (Audio)
    Set volume and pan. The Red X re-sets default setting. Can't drag audio from Viewer
    but can drag the Hand. Can also hit Red Envelope icon, or F10. Shift Z centers
    everything in Viewer. Zoom slider is in lower left. Put In about 3-4 frames before
    the first word. Can zoom all the way in to one frame at Play Head line, and take out
    pops etc with Pen Tool. Red Band adjusts volume, Purple Band adjusts pan.

    12_04 Edit (Audio)
    B-roll is pictures to illustrate what's being talked about. Scrubber Bar shows whole
    clip though the View Window might be zoomed. To make mono from stereo:
    Modify, Stereo Pair (uncheck). Re-set pans. When editing B-roll with audio load
    to Viewer, then drag far left icons in Patch Panel to different tracks and edit as
    Overwrite. Will edit to Play Head, but can drag around using Arrow Tool. Can drag
    longer or shorter. FC allows 99 tracks of audio and video. He uses V1, A1, A2 for
    talking heads, V2, A3, A4 for B-roll, and V3 for text. To edit video but not audio or
    vice versa click far left tab in Patch Panel to disconnect when editing from Viewer.

    12_05 Trimming (Audio)
    Turn Snapping off. To shorten In/Out select Ripple Tool and drag. To change height
    of tracks use Bar Chart in lower right of Patch Panel, then Shift Z to fit, and Opt Com
    W to show wave form in Time Line. To hear audio by dragging Play Head in Time
    Line: View, Audio Scrubbing or Shift S. Example used Ripple Tool to take off end of
    clip, and then used a Timecode offset by typing -, 1, Ent to trim one more frame. Two
    kinds of Split Edits, L and J. In L video edits before audio and in J edits after. To get
    a clip back in sync Ctl Click on the Red Flag and select from menu. To do an L Edit
    choose Roll Tool, then Opt click on track and edit point you want to change, release
    Opt key and Roll to point where you want it.

    12_06 Linking (Audio)
    To link/unlink audio to video Modify, Link. Can link 24 tracks of audio to video.

    12_07 Visibility
    Turning off visibility lights can make a track invisible which is good for removing
    text, but it also deletes things that have been rendered. Ctl clicking (or Right
    Clicking) a clip brings up a menu. Uncheck Clip Enable to make invisible. Can
    also access from Modify menu or by typing Ctl B. Opt clicking Visibility Lights turns
    off all but the one you select, and doing it again turns all back on. When exporting,
    things with Visibility Light off do not export.

    13_01 Audio Checkerboard
    A1-A2 main talking head audio
    A3-A4 natural sounds, B-roll
    A5 narrator
    A6-A8 sound effects
    A9-A10 music clip 1
    A11-A12 music clip 2

    13_02 Meters
    If red lights at the top of the audio meters ever come on, you have ruined the video.
    The volume doubles every 6 dB.

    13_03 Audio Mix Levels
    Total mix: -3 to -6 dB, Principal audio (talking head): -6 to -12 dB, Sound effects:
    -12 to -18 dB, Music (underscore): -18 dB. When recording vocals, audio levels
    should be quiet in case speaker gets carried away. To increase level double
    click to Viewer. Remember Red X is a re-set button. Or you can use Clip Overlays
    (bottom center of Patch Panel) which puts Red Band in Time Line. To set peak audio
    level: Modify, Audio, Apply Normalization Gain, which raises everything to the point
    that it peaks at selected level. To use keyboard highlight in Time Line, Ctl [ or ].

    13_04 Mixing
    The button in the bottom left corner of the Patch Panel brings up the Mute and Solo
    buttons. To adjust audio levels Relative or Absolute highlight with rectangle, Modify,
    Levels. To add fade in highlight edit point, be sure Time Line is selected, Effects,
    Audio Transitions (Cmd Opt T). To overlap can highlight In and type #, - and Out
    and type #,+. Can adjust fade time in Browser, Audio Transitions, and drag (won't
    change default). For video dissolves: Effects, Video Transitions, Dissolve, Cross
    Dissolve (Cmd T). Ctl click to adjust.

    13_05 Mixer
    Window, Arrange, Audio Mixing. Button just above master fader is DownMixer, and
    just above that is Mute. Adjust Views 1-4 with buttons in column on far left. Opt click
    resets faders to original level. In stereo pan 1st track to left and second to right. In
    dual channel mono pan to center. Leave Source set to Auto. A Key Frame is a point
    of change during playback, and they're done in pairs. When Key Frame button (top
    right of mixer) is black sliders adjust whole clip. When green they will set key frames
    when adjusted during playback. Opt clicking adds/deletes key frames. Pen Tool
    (letter P) lets you drag key frames up and down(?).

    13_06 Stuff
    To copy key frames highlight clip, Edit, Copy, highlight where to, Edit, Paste
    Attributes (Opt V), check Levels. If Render Bar comes on you might need to add audio
    tracks to FCP, User Preferences, General. If you have a lot of vid tracks and
    decide to render instead Sequence, Render Only, Mixdown, which will reduce it to
    a stereo pair (Opt Cmd R). Changing the clip deletes the mixdown. To see peak
    levels highlight gray bar above Time Line, Mark, Audio Peaks, Mark. It will work
    in any selected window.

    14_02 Create
    FCP, Easy Setup and Audio/Video Settings, then File, New Project, then
    immediately save and name on Boot Drive. File, Save Project As, New Folder.
    Path to captured media should be 2nd Drive, Final Cut Pro Documents, Capture

    14_03 View
    Start sequence: Camera, Hard disk, Computer, Final Cut. To refresh signal from
    camera View, Refresh A/V Devices which checks all firewire ports. Then View,
    External Video, check All Frames if you want to use an external firewire viewer
    (...Off turns off output). View, Video Playback lets you select type of firewire device.
    Digital Cinema Desktop Preview - Main in Video Playback lets you send signal
    to a different monitor. If you do that, in View, Audio Playback, check Audio Follows
    Video to keep in sync.

    14_04 Preview
    When inuputting analog data it must be digitized using a capture card. After you learn
    to log and capture DV you can do anything except HDV and P2 media. File, Edit, Log
    and Capture or Cmd 8. Can set the In in the lower left time window and the duration
    in the upper left window of the Preview window. The go to In/Out buttons are located
    on the outer sides of the lower time windows, or Shift I/O does the same. The message
    window in the bottom center can give 4 messages. VTR OK means it has control. No
    Communication means there's no deck attached. VTR In Local means there's a switch
    to toggle control from deck to computer/FCP. Tape Not Threaded means there's no
    tape in the deck. J,K,L keys move forward, back etc... Holding K/L goes forward at
    1/3 speed and K/J goes backward...

    14_05 Logging
    All tapes must have a Reel Number. Final Cut references by File Name, Reel
    Number and Time Code. Change Reel Number from default 001 as soon as you
    open the Log and Capture Window. In Logging Window info with box checked will
    become part of the Name. He uses B - to identify B Roll. In documentaries he will
    put a person's name as Description, and what they're talking about in Scene, etc.
    He doesn't use Angle because it only displays numbers 1-15 and letters A-F. The
    Name identifies the file on the Hard Disk, in the Browser and in the Time Line. Use
    only spaces, underscores and hyphens in name. Using other punctuation can
    complicate things. The check box beside Log Note is only that and doesn't really do

    14_06 Settings
    Check/uncheck to capture video/audio. To hear audio during capture check Preview
    box. Video Scopes are for analog. Use default Video settings and make changes
    later in case you have to re-capture so you won't have to remember settings. The
    button beside the Audio Bars toggles between Dual Channel Mono and Stereo. To
    capture only one audio track turn off Visibility Light. Set Capture Settings. Remember:
    DV and HDV material takes 13Gb/hr.

    Notes from 14_09: after you set settings create new project so you can name it...File,
    New Project, then immediately save it: File, Save Project As

    Never leave Log and Capture Window open when looking at something in the Viewer.

    To see Viewer Full Screen: View, Video Playback, Digital Cinema Desktop Preview,
    Cmd F12...Esc to escape.

    14_07 Capturing
    When Prompt box is checked in Logging Window, a confirmation window will appear
    before capturing. If not it just captures as is. When capturing one clip with In/Out set,
    select Clip to capture. You can set In/Out for several clips from the same tape, selecting
    Log Clip each time. When all are selected highlight each, Batch, select which from
    Capture in pop-up window (Offline are ones with red slash through them). Add one
    second (100) or three second handles to each. Capture Now gets audio and video
    out of sync and should not be used if you have good Time Code like with DV or HDV.
    It somehow makes re-capturing almost impossible. Even when capturing long sections
    of tape set In/Out and capture Clip.

    14_08 Stuff
    Expand Browser Window to see all info about clips. Files are stored in Final Cut Pro
    Documents, Capture Scratch. FC never shows high quality during capture. To use
    DV markers that are on the tape: Mark, DV Start/Stop Detect. With Browser active
    and Marker selected you can make subclip: Modify, Make Subclip.

    14_09 HDV
    To setup for HDV: FCP, Easy Setup. FCP needs 3.5 seconds before/after Time Code
    change to set In/Out. To automatically create individual clips from Starts/Stops on
    tape: Logging Window, Clip Settings, Create New Clip on Start/Stop. Set In/Out on
    tape and FC will automatically separate in HDV. Sometimes, depending on the
    camera, there are problems with Batch or Clip Capturing in HDV, in which case do
    what you can with Capture Now.

    14_10 P2
    Use File, Log and Transfer instead of Log and Capture. In older versions it's File,
    Import, P2 Media. First load from camera to computer. Then click top left button
    in Log and Transfer window. Watch lesson again if....

    14_11 ProRes 422
    A QuickTime codec requiring QT 7.1.6 or later, and ships with Final Cut Studio 2.
    Provides HD quality in SD storage space. (Didn't write out or watch entire lesson.)

    15 Outputting to tape
    You "export" to the computer and "output" to the computer. (Didn't write out or watch
    entire chapter.)

    16_01 Importing
    First, store all info in FCP project folder. To import: File, Import, Files, Audio (in
    example.) Highlight selection, Choose. Can Shift Click or Cmd Click to highlight
    multiple selections. Cmd I is shortcut to selection window. File, Import, Folder lets
    you bring in folders from same window.

    16_02 iTunes Convert
    Final Cut only supports AIFF, WAVE and SD2 files, all of which are uncompressed.
    It won't play a compressed file properly. Use iTunes to convert. Ctrl Click on a column
    header and choose Kind from the drop down menu to see what type something is.
    To convert to AIFF: iTunes, Preferences, Advanced (in older versions Advanced is
    called Importing), Importing, Import Using, AIFF Encoder, OK. Then highlight
    selection, Advanced, Convert Selection to AIFF. Then drag converted file to Desktop,
    and then to FCP project folder. Then go back to Import Window and find file (example
    did it by choosing Desktop though he said he did it from FCP project folder), Choose.

    16_03 Graphics
    Computers use square pixels and video uses rectangular. Go to Import Window,
    Graphics. .tif is 720 x 540 x 72, while video wants 720 x 480 x 72. See Graphics Sizing
    Chart at bottom of page (Note: Multi-layer is PSD). Always try to save as TIFF or PNG,
    not JPEG.

    17_02 Exporting, Still Frame
    Can export from Time Line or Viewer. Put Playhead on frame. File, Export, Using
    QuickTime Conversion, Save As roll down (example used Desktop), Format, Still
    Image, Save As (again) to name, Options, PNG or TIFF (for better quality than PNG),
    OK, Save. Must convert so open Photo Shop, File, Open, select, Open. If there are
    lines you must de-interlace: Filter, Video, De-Interlace, use default settings, OK.
    If there are no lines, don't de-interlace. If so do that and then change size: Image,
    Image Size, uncheck Constrain Proportions, Width, 640, OK.

    17_03 Exporting, QuickTime
    To export at highest quality and speed: File, Export, QuickTime Movie.

    A self-contained QT movie contains all audio, video and rendered files fully mixed
    in one big file. A reference QT movie contains all audio fully mixed, and pointers
    pointing to where video and render files are stored. All compressed files are self
    contained. 4 reasons to make QT movie self contained: when sending to someone
    else, if you're going to keep it long term, if you're working in HDV or XDCAM, when
    you're fixing an output problem. In general when exporting to create compressed files
    for DVD or web make reference movies. File, Export, QT Movie, Setting, Current
    Settings (uses sequence settings and is highest quality), Markers, DVD Studio Pro
    Markers. Do not Recompress All Frames if Current Settings is selected.

    17_04 Compressor
    If the Export selection is grayed out, select the Time Line. Export Using Compressor
    is highest quality and might give better results for motion sometimes. His says it's
    something to play around with.

    17_05 QuickTime Conversion
    QT Conversion allows you to change movies into a wide variety of other formats,
    but it has disadvantages, like: If you're using 10 bit video like many HD formats
    QT Conversion automatically down samples it to 8 bit which can cause color banding.
    It also takes longer, is not highest quality or smallest file size. Use if for still frames, but
    for anything else it's best to make a QT Movie and then use a third party program
    specifically designed to do compression. From summary: Use Compressor or iDVD
    to create MPEG-2, rather than QT Conversion.

    17_06 Audio
    File, Export, Audio to AIFF(s), takes all audio and boils it down to Channel Grouped
    (dual channel mono) or Stereo Mix. When burning to audio CD set Rate to 44.1 kHz.
    When burning to computer slightly higher quality is 48. Audio to OMF to send it to
    Pro Tools or something, set Rate to 48 if audio is from video, and 44.1 if it's from CD.
    16-bit Depth is always good. 5-10 second Handle Length. Check all Include options.
    Remember OMF has a 2G file limit which is about 4-6 tracks of an hour long show.
    Use Visibility Lights to export some select tracks and then the others separately.

    17_07 Exporting for Sound Track
    To fix a clip Ctl Click on it or go to File, Send To, Soundtrack Pro Audio File Project.
    Can also highlight several and send as individual clips. To do mixing select all and
    send as Soundtrack Pro Multitrack Project. F1 key changes window view?

    17_08 Multichannel Export
    To output more than 2 tracks: Sequence, Settings (Cmd O), Audio Outputs, Outputs,
    select number. 5.1 Monitoring: L + R... is Surround Sound. To bring up mixer:
    Window, Arrange, Audio Mixing. To assign tracks to handles Ctl Click between Lock
    and Patch Button on each track and assign with dialogue box, Audio Outputs.
    Note: In Surround 1 & 2 are L/R front, 3 is center speaker, 4 is sub-woofer, 5 & 6 are
    L/R rear.

    18_02 Offline and Trashing
    To make a file go offline: select (example was in Browser), Modify, Make Offline, or
    Shift D, or Ctl Click. 3 options: leave on disk, move to trash or remove from disk.

    18_03 Reconnecting and Renaming
    Ctl Click in Time Line or highlight in Browser, File, Reconnect Media. Can be an
    Offline, Online or Render file. 99% of the time it will be Offline. It's easier to re-render
    than reconnect render files? Check Search Single Location if you know where it is.
    Locate means you find it, Search means the computer does. If you haven't changed
    the name, Search is best. It will find and highlight if Matched Name and Reel Only is
    checked, Choose, Connect, then save project to save connection. To re-name: select
    in Browser, View, Reveal in Finder, make changes. That brings up Offline Files
    Window. Choose Forget Files only if you want it to forget them. If you click Continue
    it will remain offline. Connect takes you to Reconnect Files Window. Search gets as
    close as it can, uncheck Matched Name and Reel Only (whenever you change a
    name), select clip, Choose, Connect. To rename file to match clip in Browser:
    select clip, Modify, Rename, File to Match Clip. To see the change: View, Reveal in

    18 _04 Timecode
    To change timecode: load to Viewer, Modify, Timecode. Don't change Source but
    check and change an Aux. Don't change Rate, but ok to change from drop frame. To
    see change Ctl Click on right timecode window in Viewer and select from menu. To
    change sequence timecode: Sequence, Settings, Timeline Options. To move clips
    select all in timeline, + 130 (example) moves them 1.5 minutes.

    18_05 Item Properties
    Select in Browser, Edit, Item Properties, Format. Can select several in timeline and
    do the same. If something is gray instead of bold it's the same as the column on its left.
    Edit, Project Properties lets you change those.

    18_06 Render
    Anything that's not straight audio or video requires a render file. To change render
    settings: Sequence, Settings, Video Processing. 8 bit is usually good enough, use
    10 bit for HD and high-precision YUV for a lot of color saturation. If you turn off a
    Visibility Light you lose all render files on that track. If you want to see what's under
    a render file instead Ctl Click the clip and uncheck Clip Enable. You still lose the
    render files, turning off or on Visibility Lights or Clip Enable.

    18_07 Render Manager
    Tools, Render Manager. That will display all render files. To delete click in Remove
    column and click OK. Use at the end of a project. Don't delete files FC creates like
    the Constant Frames folder.

    18_08 Media Manager
    Highlight in Browser, File, Media Manager. To copy select Copy from menu in Media
    window. Uncheck Include render files, Include master clips...., Delete unused media...,
    and check both boxes in Project. When you Move media originals are deleted...check
    Delete unused media from duplicated items only if you need to conserve space, use
    3 second Handles. Use existing is very risky. You could use it on a clip by clip basis
    to reduce the size of long clips you only use a small amount of, but it's better to only
    capture what you will need to begin with. Recompress lets you change formats. A
    better way to change formats is: File, Batch Export, Settings, Settings, but he
    prefers Compressor over that (but never talked about it in this tutorial).


    Notes: - text file tutorials
    A clip points to an entire media file
    Properties - Edit, Item Properties
    DV and HDV material takes 13Gb/hr

    Keyboard Shortcuts:
    Ctl ~ deletes all markers.
    Ctl [ or ] raises and lowers audio level in Time Line
    Ctl clicking on things brings up menu
    Ctl B toggles Clip Enable (makes visible/invisible)
    Ctl C opens Batch Capture
    Ctl D shows duration
    Ctl U brings up standard window layout
    Ctl Z toggles stupid green check mark ***
    Opt click selects only audio or video
    Opt + zooms timeline
    Opt 6 Audio Mixer
    Opt P plays section without rendering
    Opt W turns on red audio bands in timeline
    Opt Cmd L turns on audio levels dialog
    Opt Cmd T applies default audio transition
    Opt Cmd R Renders audio mixdown
    A Arrow Tool
    E moves edit point to position of Play Head
    ^H, hh Scrub Tool
    Shift/Opt K jumps to next/previous keyframe
    I/O sets In/Out
    Shift I/O moves playhead to In/Out
    Opt I/O deletes In/Out
    M creates marker
    Shif M moves playhead to next marker (clip must be selected)
    Opt M moves playhead to previous marker
    Opt V Paste Attributes
    N toggles Snapping on/off.
    S Slip Tool
    U toggles between three sides of edit point.
    X sets both In and Out
    Z zooms. See notes in 04_06
    Opt X deletes both In and Out
    Cmd + Zooms
    Cmd 8 Log and Capture
    Shift Cmd 8 Log and Transfer
    Cmd I opens import selection window
    Cmd L toggles link ***
    Cmd N creates new sequence
    Cmd T applies default video transition
    Cmd U creates subclip
    F6 + # video patch track
    F7 + # a1 patch track
    F8 + # a2 patch track
    F9 Insert edit
    F10 Overwrite edit
    F11 Replace edit
    dh@., Nov 10, 2008
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  2. dh@.

    Telstar Guest

    Who cares about this incredibly obvious crap?
    Telstar, Nov 15, 2008
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  3. dh@.

    dh@. Guest

    On Fri, 14 Nov 2008 16:30:40 -0800, "Telstar" <> wrote:

    >Who cares about this incredibly obvious crap?

    People who are trying to learn it. If you claim you were
    somehow born instinctively understanding it all so it has
    always been obvious to you then I can't help but doubt
    you, even more than someone who says they all of a
    sudden could magically play a piano or something. And
    even IF that's how it went for you, it doesn't appear to
    be that way for the majority of people.
    dh@., Nov 17, 2008
  4. dh@.

    RickMerrill Guest

    dh@. wrote:
    > On Fri, 14 Nov 2008 16:30:40 -0800, "Telstar" <> wrote:
    >> Who cares about this incredibly obvious crap?

    > People who are trying to learn it. If you claim you were
    > somehow born instinctively understanding it all so it has
    > always been obvious to you then I can't help but doubt
    > you, even more than someone who says they all of a
    > sudden could magically play a piano or something. And
    > even IF that's how it went for you, it doesn't appear to
    > be that way for the majority of people.

    divine revelation no doubt!
    RickMerrill, Nov 18, 2008
  5. dh@.

    dh@. Guest

    On Tue, 18 Nov 2008 16:17:38 -0500, RickMerrill <> wrote:

    >dh@. wrote:
    >> On Fri, 14 Nov 2008 16:30:40 -0800, "Telstar" <> wrote:
    >>> Who cares about this incredibly obvious crap?

    >> People who are trying to learn it. If you claim you were
    >> somehow born instinctively understanding it all so it has
    >> always been obvious to you then I can't help but doubt
    >> you, even more than someone who says they all of a
    >> sudden could magically play a piano or something. And
    >> even IF that's how it went for you, it doesn't appear to
    >> be that way for the majority of people.

    >divine revelation no doubt!

    Oh yeah. If God exists I imagine some of the claims
    are real, but I always suspect a hoax when I hear about
    particular examples. So I'm suspicious that Telstar may
    have watched a tutorial, read a book, and/or may have
    even taken some notes himself along the way.
    dh@., Nov 19, 2008
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