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[SUMMARY] Symbolify (#169)

 
 
Matthew Moss
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      07-17-2008
Apologies for being a bit late... Here's this week's summary.


The primary point of this week's quiz was to highlight the `?`
pseudo-operator... Simply, a character preceded by `?` is converted
to its ASCII value. (I hesitate to call it a true operator, since it
is almost certainly not defined nor implemented in such manner.
Rather, I expect, it is part of Ruby's lexer and so forms part of the
definition of a number. But, in some ways, it _looks_ like a unary
operator.) Type `?(` into irb and the interpreter will return the
value 40.

Knowing this, the five quiz-permitted characters give easy access to
five integer values.

> [?(, ?), ?*, ?-, ??]

=> [40, 41, 42, 45, 63]

But I specifically permitted four characters (aside from the `?`) that
can be used for a number of mathematical operations.
Grouping/precedence, addition, subtraction, multiplication and
exponentiation are all possible using those four characters, and so we
can express values aside from the five shown above.

> ?) - ?( # 41 - 40

=> 1

> (?* - ?() ** ?( # 2 ** 40

=> 1099511627776

Using these techniques, it is possible to form an expression that
evaluates to any number, though perhaps not compactly. Let's look at a
couple solutions.

Our first solution is from _Alex LeDonne_:

def symbolify(i)
"??-??" + "-?(--?)" * i
end

Remember, it's the string output from `symbolify` that, by request of
the quiz specification, must contain only the five permitted
characters. Alex begins with `??-??`. As shove above, `??` evaluates
to 63, so this expression is `63-63`: that is, zero.

I'm going to examine the next string in a few steps, just to make it
clear what's going on. First, add in some whitespace.

"- ?( - - ?)"

Second, replace the `?` pseudo-operators with appropriate ASCII values.

"- 40 - - 41"

Third, realize that one of those `-` characters now represent unary
negation operators.

"- 40 - -41"

Fourth, simply the mathematical identity that subtracting a negative
is the same as adding the positive.

"- 40 + 41"

Finally, do the math.

"+ 1"

So now let's look at Alex's solution again, using these equivalent
strings, to understand the intent.

def symbolify(i)
"0" + "+1" * i
end

So the call `symbolify(5)` results in a string that is effectively
`0+1+1+1+1+1`. Which, when evaluated, equals five. It's not the most
efficient way to count, but it is the simplest. Of course, this
conversion was done just to show how Alex's solution produces the
correct values on evaluation. The _actual_ output of `symbolify(5)`
is:

=> "??-??-?(--?)-?(--?)-?(--?)-?(--?)-?(--?)"

I apologize for a bit long-winded explanation, but I wanted to make it
clear for anyone who might be confused about all this. For the rest of
the solutions I look at here, I'll skip the string and symbol details
and look specifically at the algorithm.

As programmers, I certainly expected someone to provide a simple
powers-of-two solution, and _Bill Kelly_ provides one. (Bill golfed
this to a single line, but it is shown here with additional whitespace
for readability.)

def symbolify(i)
x = "(?(-?()"
i.to_s(2).each_byte { |d|
x="(#{x}*(?*-?()--(?#{(d-.chr}-?())"
}
x
end

The first line assigns a default value of zero. The second line
enumerates over the digits of the binary representation of the input
(as provided by `to_s(2)`). For each digit, the preceding value of `x`
is doubled (multiplication by `(?*-?()`), and then the next digit is
added in. This is basic binary counting.

What might be a little confusing here is why eight is subtracted from
`d`. Realize that enumerating the binary string using `each_byte` sets
`d` to the ASCII value: in this case, either 48 or 49, the ASCII
values of "0" and "1". Subtracting eight gives us 40 or 41, equivalent
to `?(` or `?)`.

As a final non-cheating solution, I want to look at one from _Dana Merrick_.

require 'mathn'

def symbolify(i)
i.zero?? "??-??":"-"+("(?(-?))-"*i).chop
end

def symbolify_short(i)
return "??-??" if i.zero?
factors = i.prime_division
factors.inject("") do |string,pair|
string << "(" << symbolify(pair.first) << ")**("
<< symbolify(pair.last) << ")*"
end.chop
end

Dana's `symbolify` function is very similar to Alex's solution above:
counting by ones. But in the added function, `symbolify_short`, Dana
makes use of `prime_division` from the `mathn` module, which will
calculate the prime factorization of an integer. For example:

> 360.prime_division

=> [[2, 3], [3, 2], [5, 1]

> (2 ** 3) * (3 ** 2) * (5 ** 1)

=> 360

This provides an efficient way to represent the inputs while still
adhering to the permitted characters. `symbolify_short` alone isn't
enough, since it can't provide output for the prime numbers, but it
calls on the simpler `symbolify` to take care of that.

Now, I figured there might be some other representations possible,
except that `eval` was going to be too limiting. So I allowed
cheating. And cheats we got, of a few different varieties.

_Chris Shea_ redefines the multiplication operator for numbers like so:

def symbolify(i)
Fixnum.class_eval <<-EOD
def *(other)
#{i}
end
EOD
'?**?*'
end

This isn't, of course, a general purpose solution, and fails the
delayed evaluation test I provided. Still, Chris managed to return a
string (the same string every time) and have that evaluate to the
number passed in.

Then we have one _Ryan Davis_, which converts the number to base-5,
using the five symbols as the digits:

FROM, TO = '01234', '?*()-'

def symbolify n
n.to_s(5).tr(FROM, TO)
end

Of course, using `eval` on the result of `symbolify` won't work, so
`eval` had to be redefined as well.

alias :real_eval :eval
def eval s
return real_eval(s) unless s =~ /^[#{Regexp.escape TO}]+$/
s.tr(TO, FROM).to_i(5)
end

Another method redefinition comes from _Lucas_ (and done in similar
fashion by a few other Rubyists), which was written solely to pass the
automated tests provided.
def symbolify (n)
s = "#{n}"
def s.delete(*args)
""
end
s
end

Note that here Lucas adds a method directly to instance `s` rather
than the String class, so it won't interfere with other code. The sole
intent of this `delete` method is to fool the automated tests.

It didn't fool _me_, as the output clearly contains characters other
than those permitted, but that's okay... I'll let it slide. They're
ugly, but I like 'em.

Finally, I present to you my own disturbingly ugly cheat:

def symbolify(num)
def eval(str) $num end; $num = num; "()"
end

Not only did I redefine `eval` (bad) in a poor manner (badder), but I
started using globals (baddest). Now that you've seen it, I recommend
you never look at it again. Just learn from the experience.

Thanks for all the submissions! I applaud your techniques and
occasional deviousness...



--
Matthew Moss <(E-Mail Removed)>

 
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Matthew Moss
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      07-17-2008
I suppose I should have also talked about ruby 1.9, since it seems the
behavior of `?` has changed... but I was too lazy to install it.

 
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[QUIZ] Symbolify (#169) Matthew Moss Ruby 74 07-17-2008 06:58 PM



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