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Verifying X509Certificate signature

 
 
Peter Ritchie [C# MVP]
Guest
Posts: n/a
 
      07-31-2008
Sorry for the cross-post; the last post didn't use the correct MSDN e-mail...

Can anyone point me in the right direction for verifying an X509Certificates
signature? i.e. that it was truly signed by a known/trusted certificate

Thanks -- Peter

--
Browse http://connect.microsoft.com/VisualStudio/feedback/ and vote.
http://www.peterRitchie.com/blog/
Microsoft MVP, Visual Developer - Visual C#
 
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Joe Kaplan
Guest
Posts: n/a
 
      07-31-2008
What is it that you have that is signed? There may be different ways
depending on the format of the signed object. If it is a PKCS7 signed data
blob, then the SignedCms class is the way to go and is pretty easy to use.

Joe K.
--
Joe Kaplan-MS MVP Directory Services Programming
Co-author of "The .NET Developer's Guide to Directory Services Programming"
http://www.directoryprogramming.net
--
"Peter Ritchie [C# MVP]" <(E-Mail Removed)> wrote in message
news:(E-Mail Removed)...
> Sorry for the cross-post; the last post didn't use the correct MSDN
> e-mail...
>
> Can anyone point me in the right direction for verifying an
> X509Certificates
> signature? i.e. that it was truly signed by a known/trusted certificate
>
> Thanks -- Peter
>
> --
> Browse http://connect.microsoft.com/VisualStudio/feedback/ and vote.
> http://www.peterRitchie.com/blog/
> Microsoft MVP, Visual Developer - Visual C#



 
Reply With Quote
 
 
 
 
Steven Cheng [MSFT]
Guest
Posts: n/a
 
      07-31-2008
Hi Peter,

As you said that you want some information about verifying X509 certificate
signature, I'd like to confirm what's the exact verification you want.

My understanding is that you may have a X509 certificate which assocate
with a publickey/private key pair( of RSA or DSA encypt provider) and
you've also used the private key to digital signed some data, and want to
verify the data, correct?

If this is the case, generally you will need to do two things here:

1. Retrieve the public/private key from the certificate (in certificate
store of windows)

2. use the key info associated with the certificate to do encryption or
digital sign.

Here are some web articles introducing some code on this:

http://www.codeproject.com/KB/securi...CryptoPad.aspx

http://www.eggheadcafe.com/articles/20020630.asp

and here is a simple test function I've written which include accessing
cert store to retrieve key info in cert and do some RSA signing and
verification:


======================================
private void btnTest_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
{
RSACryptoServiceProvider rsa;
RSAParameters key;
SHA1CryptoServiceProvider sha = new SHA1CryptoServiceProvider();

bool result;


signSrc = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes("ABCDEFG");

string tp = "2b6f8ac51a85cbaf429474a55304313968667611";
X509Store store = new X509Store(StoreName.My,
StoreLocation.CurrentUser);
store.Open(OpenFlags.ReadOnly);

X509Certificate2 cert2 =
store.Certificates.Find(X509FindType.FindByThumbpr int, tp, true)[0];

store.Close();

rsa = cert2.PrivateKey as RSACryptoServiceProvider;



signDes = rsa.SignData(signSrc, sha);

result = rsa.VerifyData(signSrc, sha, signDes);


MessageBox.Show("valid: " + result);



/** here try exporting the CERT to a exportable file */


byte[] pfx_bytes =
cert2.Export(X509ContentType.Pfx,"Password01!");


//txtContent.Text = Convert.ToBase64String(pfx_bytes);


X509Certificate2 filecert = new X509Certificate2();
filecert.Import(pfx_bytes, "Password01!",
X509KeyStorageFlags.DefaultKeySet);



RSACryptoServiceProvider rsa1 = filecert.PrivateKey as
RSACryptoServiceProvider;



result = rsa1.VerifyData(signSrc, sha, signDes);

MessageBox.Show("valid: " + result);

string expkey = Convert.ToBase64String(rsa.ExportCspBlob(true));

txtExportedKey.Text = expkey;

}
=================================================

Hope this helps some.

Sincerely,

Steven Cheng

Microsoft MSDN Online Support Lead


Delighting our customers is our #1 priority. We welcome your comments and
suggestions about how we can improve the support we provide to you. Please
feel free to let my manager know what you think of the level of service
provided. You can send feedback directly to my manager at:
http://www.velocityreviews.com/forums/(E-Mail Removed).

==================================================
Get notification to my posts through email? Please refer to
http://msdn.microsoft.com/subscripti...ult.aspx#notif
ications.

Note: The MSDN Managed Newsgroup support offering is for non-urgent issues
where an initial response from the community or a Microsoft Support
Engineer within 1 business day is acceptable. Please note that each follow
up response may take approximately 2 business days as the support
professional working with you may need further investigation to reach the
most efficient resolution. The offering is not appropriate for situations
that require urgent, real-time or phone-based interactions or complex
project analysis and dump analysis issues. Issues of this nature are best
handled working with a dedicated Microsoft Support Engineer by contacting
Microsoft Customer Support Services (CSS) at
http://msdn.microsoft.com/subscripti...t/default.aspx.
==================================================
This posting is provided "AS IS" with no warranties, and confers no rights.

--------------------
>From: =?Utf-8?B?UGV0ZXIgUml0Y2hpZSBbQyMgTVZQXQ==?=

<(E-Mail Removed)>
>Subject: Verifying X509Certificate signature
>Date: Wed, 30 Jul 2008 18:23:00 -0700


>
>Sorry for the cross-post; the last post didn't use the correct MSDN

e-mail...
>
>Can anyone point me in the right direction for verifying an

X509Certificates
>signature? i.e. that it was truly signed by a known/trusted certificate
>
>Thanks -- Peter
>
>--
>Browse http://connect.microsoft.com/VisualStudio/feedback/ and vote.
>http://www.peterRitchie.com/blog/
>Microsoft MVP, Visual Developer - Visual C#
>


 
Reply With Quote
 
Steven Cheng [MSFT]
Guest
Posts: n/a
 
      07-31-2008
Hi Peter,

As you said that you want some information about verifying X509 certificate
signature, I'd like to confirm what's the exact verification you want.

My understanding is that you may have a X509 certificate which assocate
with a publickey/private key pair( of RSA or DSA encypt provider) and
you've also used the private key to digital signed some data, and want to
verify the data, correct?

If this is the case, generally you will need to do two things here:

1. Retrieve the public/private key from the certificate (in certificate
store of windows)

2. use the key info associated with the certificate to do encryption or
digital sign.

Here are some web articles introducing some code on this:

http://www.codeproject.com/KB/securi...CryptoPad.aspx

http://www.eggheadcafe.com/articles/20020630.asp

and here is a simple test function I've written which include accessing
cert store to retrieve key info in cert and do some RSA signing and
verification:


======================================
private void btnTest_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
{
RSACryptoServiceProvider rsa;
RSAParameters key;
SHA1CryptoServiceProvider sha = new SHA1CryptoServiceProvider();

bool result;


signSrc = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes("ABCDEFG");

string tp = "2b6f8ac51a85cbaf429474a55304313968667611";
X509Store store = new X509Store(StoreName.My,
StoreLocation.CurrentUser);
store.Open(OpenFlags.ReadOnly);

X509Certificate2 cert2 =
store.Certificates.Find(X509FindType.FindByThumbpr int, tp, true)[0];

store.Close();

rsa = cert2.PrivateKey as RSACryptoServiceProvider;



signDes = rsa.SignData(signSrc, sha);

result = rsa.VerifyData(signSrc, sha, signDes);


MessageBox.Show("valid: " + result);



/** here try exporting the CERT to a exportable file */


byte[] pfx_bytes =
cert2.Export(X509ContentType.Pfx,"Password01!");


//txtContent.Text = Convert.ToBase64String(pfx_bytes);


X509Certificate2 filecert = new X509Certificate2();
filecert.Import(pfx_bytes, "Password01!",
X509KeyStorageFlags.DefaultKeySet);



RSACryptoServiceProvider rsa1 = filecert.PrivateKey as
RSACryptoServiceProvider;



result = rsa1.VerifyData(signSrc, sha, signDes);

MessageBox.Show("valid: " + result);

string expkey = Convert.ToBase64String(rsa.ExportCspBlob(true));

txtExportedKey.Text = expkey;

}
=================================================

Hope this helps some.

Sincerely,

Steven Cheng

Microsoft MSDN Online Support Lead


Delighting our customers is our #1 priority. We welcome your comments and
suggestions about how we can improve the support we provide to you. Please
feel free to let my manager know what you think of the level of service
provided. You can send feedback directly to my manager at:
(E-Mail Removed).

==================================================
Get notification to my posts through email? Please refer to
http://msdn.microsoft.com/subscripti...ult.aspx#notif
ications.

Note: The MSDN Managed Newsgroup support offering is for non-urgent issues
where an initial response from the community or a Microsoft Support
Engineer within 1 business day is acceptable. Please note that each follow
up response may take approximately 2 business days as the support
professional working with you may need further investigation to reach the
most efficient resolution. The offering is not appropriate for situations
that require urgent, real-time or phone-based interactions or complex
project analysis and dump analysis issues. Issues of this nature are best
handled working with a dedicated Microsoft Support Engineer by contacting
Microsoft Customer Support Services (CSS) at
http://msdn.microsoft.com/subscripti...t/default.aspx.
==================================================
This posting is provided "AS IS" with no warranties, and confers no rights.

--------------------
>From: =?Utf-8?B?UGV0ZXIgUml0Y2hpZSBbQyMgTVZQXQ==?=

<(E-Mail Removed)>
>Subject: Verifying X509Certificate signature
>Date: Wed, 30 Jul 2008 18:23:00 -0700


>
>Sorry for the cross-post; the last post didn't use the correct MSDN

e-mail...
>
>Can anyone point me in the right direction for verifying an

X509Certificates
>signature? i.e. that it was truly signed by a known/trusted certificate
>
>Thanks -- Peter
>
>--
>Browse http://connect.microsoft.com/VisualStudio/feedback/ and vote.
>http://www.peterRitchie.com/blog/
>Microsoft MVP, Visual Developer - Visual C#
>


 
Reply With Quote
 
Peter Ritchie [C# MVP]
Guest
Posts: n/a
 
      07-31-2008
Hi Joe, I'm actually looking to verify the signature of a certificate. I
have an X509Certificate2 object that has been signed with another
certificate. As part of my verification of the source of the certificate,
I'd like to verify that it has been signed by a known certificate.

Thanks -- Peter
--
Browse http://connect.microsoft.com/VisualStudio/feedback/ and vote.
http://www.peterRitchie.com/blog/
Microsoft MVP, Visual Developer - Visual C#


"Joe Kaplan" wrote:

> What is it that you have that is signed? There may be different ways
> depending on the format of the signed object. If it is a PKCS7 signed data
> blob, then the SignedCms class is the way to go and is pretty easy to use.
>
> Joe K.
> --
> Joe Kaplan-MS MVP Directory Services Programming
> Co-author of "The .NET Developer's Guide to Directory Services Programming"
> http://www.directoryprogramming.net
> --
> "Peter Ritchie [C# MVP]" <(E-Mail Removed)> wrote in message
> news:(E-Mail Removed)...
> > Sorry for the cross-post; the last post didn't use the correct MSDN
> > e-mail...
> >
> > Can anyone point me in the right direction for verifying an
> > X509Certificates
> > signature? i.e. that it was truly signed by a known/trusted certificate
> >
> > Thanks -- Peter
> >
> > --
> > Browse http://connect.microsoft.com/VisualStudio/feedback/ and vote.
> > http://www.peterRitchie.com/blog/
> > Microsoft MVP, Visual Developer - Visual C#

>
>
>

 
Reply With Quote
 
Peter Ritchie [C# MVP]
Guest
Posts: n/a
 
      07-31-2008
Hi Steven. It appears your sample code signs some data and verifies the
signature on that data. The signed data I'm looking to verify is a
certificate itself. Verifying a signature on data I've signed isn't an
issue--with that sort of data I know what data to pass to Verify. With am
X509Certificate2, if I wanted to use the Verify method, what data would I
pass?

Thanks -- Peter

--
Browse http://connect.microsoft.com/VisualStudio/feedback/ and vote.
http://www.peterRitchie.com/blog/
Microsoft MVP, Visual Developer - Visual C#


"Steven Cheng [MSFT]" wrote:

> Hi Peter,
>
> As you said that you want some information about verifying X509 certificate
> signature, I'd like to confirm what's the exact verification you want.
>
> My understanding is that you may have a X509 certificate which assocate
> with a publickey/private key pair( of RSA or DSA encypt provider) and
> you've also used the private key to digital signed some data, and want to
> verify the data, correct?
>
> If this is the case, generally you will need to do two things here:
>
> 1. Retrieve the public/private key from the certificate (in certificate
> store of windows)
>
> 2. use the key info associated with the certificate to do encryption or
> digital sign.
>
> Here are some web articles introducing some code on this:
>
> http://www.codeproject.com/KB/securi...CryptoPad.aspx
>
> http://www.eggheadcafe.com/articles/20020630.asp
>
> and here is a simple test function I've written which include accessing
> cert store to retrieve key info in cert and do some RSA signing and
> verification:
>
>
> ======================================
> private void btnTest_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
> {
> RSACryptoServiceProvider rsa;
> RSAParameters key;
> SHA1CryptoServiceProvider sha = new SHA1CryptoServiceProvider();
>
> bool result;
>
>
> signSrc = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes("ABCDEFG");
>
> string tp = "2b6f8ac51a85cbaf429474a55304313968667611";
> X509Store store = new X509Store(StoreName.My,
> StoreLocation.CurrentUser);
> store.Open(OpenFlags.ReadOnly);
>
> X509Certificate2 cert2 =
> store.Certificates.Find(X509FindType.FindByThumbpr int, tp, true)[0];
>
> store.Close();
>
> rsa = cert2.PrivateKey as RSACryptoServiceProvider;
>
>
>
> signDes = rsa.SignData(signSrc, sha);
>
> result = rsa.VerifyData(signSrc, sha, signDes);
>
>
> MessageBox.Show("valid: " + result);
>
>
>
> /** here try exporting the CERT to a exportable file */
>
>
> byte[] pfx_bytes =
> cert2.Export(X509ContentType.Pfx,"Password01!");
>
>
> //txtContent.Text = Convert.ToBase64String(pfx_bytes);
>
>
> X509Certificate2 filecert = new X509Certificate2();
> filecert.Import(pfx_bytes, "Password01!",
> X509KeyStorageFlags.DefaultKeySet);
>
>
>
> RSACryptoServiceProvider rsa1 = filecert.PrivateKey as
> RSACryptoServiceProvider;
>
>
>
> result = rsa1.VerifyData(signSrc, sha, signDes);
>
> MessageBox.Show("valid: " + result);
>
> string expkey = Convert.ToBase64String(rsa.ExportCspBlob(true));
>
> txtExportedKey.Text = expkey;
>
> }
> =================================================
>
> Hope this helps some.
>
> Sincerely,
>
> Steven Cheng
>
> Microsoft MSDN Online Support Lead
>
>
> Delighting our customers is our #1 priority. We welcome your comments and
> suggestions about how we can improve the support we provide to you. Please
> feel free to let my manager know what you think of the level of service
> provided. You can send feedback directly to my manager at:
> (E-Mail Removed).
>
> ==================================================
> Get notification to my posts through email? Please refer to
> http://msdn.microsoft.com/subscripti...ult.aspx#notif
> ications.
>
> Note: The MSDN Managed Newsgroup support offering is for non-urgent issues
> where an initial response from the community or a Microsoft Support
> Engineer within 1 business day is acceptable. Please note that each follow
> up response may take approximately 2 business days as the support
> professional working with you may need further investigation to reach the
> most efficient resolution. The offering is not appropriate for situations
> that require urgent, real-time or phone-based interactions or complex
> project analysis and dump analysis issues. Issues of this nature are best
> handled working with a dedicated Microsoft Support Engineer by contacting
> Microsoft Customer Support Services (CSS) at
> http://msdn.microsoft.com/subscripti...t/default.aspx.
> ==================================================
> This posting is provided "AS IS" with no warranties, and confers no rights.
>
> --------------------
> >From: =?Utf-8?B?UGV0ZXIgUml0Y2hpZSBbQyMgTVZQXQ==?=

> <(E-Mail Removed)>
> >Subject: Verifying X509Certificate signature
> >Date: Wed, 30 Jul 2008 18:23:00 -0700

>
> >
> >Sorry for the cross-post; the last post didn't use the correct MSDN

> e-mail...
> >
> >Can anyone point me in the right direction for verifying an

> X509Certificates
> >signature? i.e. that it was truly signed by a known/trusted certificate
> >
> >Thanks -- Peter
> >
> >--
> >Browse http://connect.microsoft.com/VisualStudio/feedback/ and vote.
> >http://www.peterRitchie.com/blog/
> >Microsoft MVP, Visual Developer - Visual C#
> >

>
>

 
Reply With Quote
 
Joe Kaplan
Guest
Posts: n/a
 
      07-31-2008
I see what you are saying. What you really want to do is to build a chain
for the certificate and validate that. Simply checking the signing
certificate may not be adequate because something may have issed it as well.

Try taking a peek at the X509Chain class and the Build method. Note that it
will want you to apply a ChainPolicy as well where you describe what you are
checking the cert for.

Joe K.
--
Joe Kaplan-MS MVP Directory Services Programming
Co-author of "The .NET Developer's Guide to Directory Services Programming"
http://www.directoryprogramming.net
--
"Peter Ritchie [C# MVP]" <(E-Mail Removed)> wrote in message
news:(E-Mail Removed)...
> Hi Joe, I'm actually looking to verify the signature of a certificate. I
> have an X509Certificate2 object that has been signed with another
> certificate. As part of my verification of the source of the certificate,
> I'd like to verify that it has been signed by a known certificate.
>
> Thanks -- Peter
> --
> Browse http://connect.microsoft.com/VisualStudio/feedback/ and vote.
> http://www.peterRitchie.com/blog/
> Microsoft MVP, Visual Developer - Visual C#
>
>
> "Joe Kaplan" wrote:
>
>> What is it that you have that is signed? There may be different ways
>> depending on the format of the signed object. If it is a PKCS7 signed
>> data
>> blob, then the SignedCms class is the way to go and is pretty easy to
>> use.
>>
>> Joe K.
>> --
>> Joe Kaplan-MS MVP Directory Services Programming
>> Co-author of "The .NET Developer's Guide to Directory Services
>> Programming"
>> http://www.directoryprogramming.net
>> --
>> "Peter Ritchie [C# MVP]" <(E-Mail Removed)> wrote in message
>> news:(E-Mail Removed)...
>> > Sorry for the cross-post; the last post didn't use the correct MSDN
>> > e-mail...
>> >
>> > Can anyone point me in the right direction for verifying an
>> > X509Certificates
>> > signature? i.e. that it was truly signed by a known/trusted certificate
>> >
>> > Thanks -- Peter
>> >
>> > --
>> > Browse http://connect.microsoft.com/VisualStudio/feedback/ and vote.
>> > http://www.peterRitchie.com/blog/
>> > Microsoft MVP, Visual Developer - Visual C#

>>
>>
>>



 
Reply With Quote
 
Steven Cheng [MSFT]
Guest
Posts: n/a
 
      08-01-2008
Thanks for your reply Peter,

Now, I've got that you actually want to verify the signed certificate. As
Joe has mentioned, this is something related to verify the certificate
trust chain. You can have a look at the X509Chain class and Joe has also
provided some suggestion that

#X509Chain Class
http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/libr...graphy.x509cer
tificates.x509chain.aspx

Sincerely,

Steven Cheng

Microsoft MSDN Online Support Lead


Delighting our customers is our #1 priority. We welcome your comments and
suggestions about how we can improve the support we provide to you. Please
feel free to let my manager know what you think of the level of service
provided. You can send feedback directly to my manager at:
(E-Mail Removed).

==================================================
Get notification to my posts through email? Please refer to
http://msdn.microsoft.com/subscripti...ult.aspx#notif
ications.

==================================================
This posting is provided "AS IS" with no warranties, and confers no rights.


--------------------
>From: =?Utf-8?B?UGV0ZXIgUml0Y2hpZSBbQyMgTVZQXQ==?=

<(E-Mail Removed)>
>References: <(E-Mail Removed)>

<(E-Mail Removed)>
>Subject: RE: Verifying X509Certificate signature
>Date: Thu, 31 Jul 2008 04:49:01 -0700

y
>
>Hi Steven. It appears your sample code signs some data and verifies the
>signature on that data. The signed data I'm looking to verify is a
>certificate itself. Verifying a signature on data I've signed isn't an
>issue--with that sort of data I know what data to pass to Verify. With am
>X509Certificate2, if I wanted to use the Verify method, what data would I
>pass?
>
>Thanks -- Peter
>
>--
>Browse http://connect.microsoft.com/VisualStudio/feedback/ and vote.
>http://www.peterRitchie.com/blog/
>Microsoft MVP, Visual Developer - Visual C#
>
>
>"Steven Cheng [MSFT]" wrote:
>
>> Hi Peter,
>>
>> As you said that you want some information about verifying X509

certificate
>> signature, I'd like to confirm what's the exact verification you want.
>>
>> My understanding is that you may have a X509 certificate which assocate
>> with a publickey/private key pair( of RSA or DSA encypt provider) and
>> you've also used the private key to digital signed some data, and want

to
>> verify the data, correct?
>>
>> If this is the case, generally you will need to do two things here:
>>
>> 1. Retrieve the public/private key from the certificate (in certificate
>> store of windows)
>>
>> 2. use the key info associated with the certificate to do encryption or
>> digital sign.
>>
>> Here are some web articles introducing some code on this:
>>
>> http://www.codeproject.com/KB/securi...CryptoPad.aspx
>>
>> http://www.eggheadcafe.com/articles/20020630.asp
>>
>> and here is a simple test function I've written which include accessing
>> cert store to retrieve key info in cert and do some RSA signing and
>> verification:
>>
>>
>> =


 
Reply With Quote
 
Peter Ritchie [C# MVP]
Guest
Posts: n/a
 
      08-05-2008
Thanks Joe, I'll have a closer look at X509Chain and its ChainPolicy and
Build members...

-- Peter
--
Browse http://connect.microsoft.com/VisualStudio/feedback/ and vote.
http://www.peterRitchie.com/blog/
Microsoft MVP, Visual Developer - Visual C#


"Joe Kaplan" wrote:

> I see what you are saying. What you really want to do is to build a chain
> for the certificate and validate that. Simply checking the signing
> certificate may not be adequate because something may have issed it as well.
>
> Try taking a peek at the X509Chain class and the Build method. Note that it
> will want you to apply a ChainPolicy as well where you describe what you are
> checking the cert for.
>
> Joe K.
> --
> Joe Kaplan-MS MVP Directory Services Programming
> Co-author of "The .NET Developer's Guide to Directory Services Programming"
> http://www.directoryprogramming.net
> --
> "Peter Ritchie [C# MVP]" <(E-Mail Removed)> wrote in message
> news:(E-Mail Removed)...
> > Hi Joe, I'm actually looking to verify the signature of a certificate. I
> > have an X509Certificate2 object that has been signed with another
> > certificate. As part of my verification of the source of the certificate,
> > I'd like to verify that it has been signed by a known certificate.
> >
> > Thanks -- Peter
> > --
> > Browse http://connect.microsoft.com/VisualStudio/feedback/ and vote.
> > http://www.peterRitchie.com/blog/
> > Microsoft MVP, Visual Developer - Visual C#
> >
> >
> > "Joe Kaplan" wrote:
> >
> >> What is it that you have that is signed? There may be different ways
> >> depending on the format of the signed object. If it is a PKCS7 signed
> >> data
> >> blob, then the SignedCms class is the way to go and is pretty easy to
> >> use.
> >>
> >> Joe K.
> >> --
> >> Joe Kaplan-MS MVP Directory Services Programming
> >> Co-author of "The .NET Developer's Guide to Directory Services
> >> Programming"
> >> http://www.directoryprogramming.net
> >> --
> >> "Peter Ritchie [C# MVP]" <(E-Mail Removed)> wrote in message
> >> news:(E-Mail Removed)...
> >> > Sorry for the cross-post; the last post didn't use the correct MSDN
> >> > e-mail...
> >> >
> >> > Can anyone point me in the right direction for verifying an
> >> > X509Certificates
> >> > signature? i.e. that it was truly signed by a known/trusted certificate
> >> >
> >> > Thanks -- Peter
> >> >
> >> > --
> >> > Browse http://connect.microsoft.com/VisualStudio/feedback/ and vote.
> >> > http://www.peterRitchie.com/blog/
> >> > Microsoft MVP, Visual Developer - Visual C#
> >>
> >>
> >>

>
>
>

 
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