(E-Mail Removed) said:

> How can we perfom multiplication programatically without using + or *

> operator.
Addition can be done by using ^ (xor), & (and), and << (left shift) in the

proper way.

Multiplication is repeated addition (i.e. addition in a loop).

Alternatively, you can double and halve, if you're careful in the case of an

odd number. Note that doubling will require using addition as described

above (since you are not allowed the * operator).

That's enough of a hint - now do your own homework.

--

Richard Heathfield

"Usenet is a strange place" - dmr 29/7/1999

http://www.cpax.org.uk
email: rjh at above domain (but drop the www, obviously)