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8 bit character string to 16 bit character string

 
 
Brand Bogard
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      05-25-2006
Does the C standard include a library function to convert an 8 bit character
string to a 16 bit character string?


 
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Walter Roberson
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      05-25-2006
In article <e54og7$t0c$(E-Mail Removed)>,
Brand Bogard <(E-Mail Removed)> wrote:
>Does the C standard include a library function to convert an 8 bit character
>string to a 16 bit character string?


No. All that the C standard knows about char is that it is a -minimum-
of 8 bits long.

What might interest you, however is:

wchar_t is value superset of char_t, so if you have an array of wchar_t
and copy each member of a char array in the corresponding position in
it, the result will be a valid wchar_t string representing the same text.

Once you have a wchar_t string, you can use wcstombs() to convert
it into a locale-dependant multibyte string (c.f. LC_CTYPE). If
your locale has been set up properly, this should do the transformation
you want.

By itself "16 bit character string" is not specific enough: you
need to know which encoding you are using, such as utf-16 .

--
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those who know me have no need of my name
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      05-26-2006
in comp.lang.c i read:
>In article <e54og7$t0c$(E-Mail Removed)>,
>Brand Bogard <(E-Mail Removed)> wrote:


>>Does the C standard include a library function to convert an 8 bit
>>character string to a 16 bit character string?

>
>No. All that the C standard knows about char is that it is a -minimum-
>of 8 bits long.


i.e., if you must work with 8 and 16 bit character strings you will need
custom routines if you want much portability.

>What might interest you, however is:
>
>wchar_t is value superset of char_t, so if you have an array of wchar_t
>and copy each member of a char array in the corresponding position in
>it, the result will be a valid wchar_t string representing the same text.


also, if setlocale() has been appropriately used then mbstowcs or mbsrtowcs
will convert a string (a sequence of char terminated by a null byte '\0'),
each of which may be part of a multi-byte sequence, into a wide-character
string (a sequence of wchar_t terminated by a wide null byte L'\0').

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Haider
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      05-26-2006
Try mbstowcs it will work.

 
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Brand Bogard
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      05-26-2006
"Haider" <(E-Mail Removed)> wrote in message
news:(E-Mail Removed) oups.com...
> Try mbstowcs it will work.
>

mbstowcs isn't in out environment, but mbtowc is. Thanks.


 
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Walter Roberson
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      05-26-2006
In article <e57gg4$6ov$(E-Mail Removed)>,
Brand Bogard <(E-Mail Removed)> wrote:

>mbstowcs isn't in out environment, but mbtowc is.


mbstowcs() is part of the C89 standard, and so should be available
in any hosted environment. I suggest you check <stdlib.h> to see if
it is declared there.

mbstowcs() is for converting multibyte character strings into
wide character strings. Multibyte character strings are not
necessarily "16 bit characters"; for example, the encoding used might
normally represent ISO8896-1 characters as single bytes, only
shifting into 16+ bit representations when necessary to encode
characters from other character sets. In some cases, a multibyte
character string that requires multiple bytes to represent might
convert into byte that fits within a standard (narrow) char.
The detailed representations of characters in multibyte strings
is outside of the perview of the C standard (other than a constraint
put upon the nul character.)

If you have a (narrow) char string, you cannot convert it to
a wchar_t string by setting your locale to "C" and then passing
the string through mbstowcs(). That's because the "C" locale specifies
a -particular- character encoding, and that encoding might not match
the encoding of the execution character set, so mbstowcs() might
map the characters to something unexpected, or could even fail
(if the execution character set happened to use encodings that
were incompatible with the encoding structure for the C locale
character set.)

Thus, in order to convert a char string into a wider string, you
have to copy the chars one by one into an array of wchar_t .
If you need to work with Unicode or utf-16 or whatever after that,
then wcstombs() is what you should look at.
--
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Simon Biber
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      05-27-2006
Walter Roberson wrote:
> In article <e54og7$t0c$(E-Mail Removed)>,
> Brand Bogard <(E-Mail Removed)> wrote:
>
>>Does the C standard include a library function to convert an 8 bit character
>>string to a 16 bit character string?

>
>
> No. All that the C standard knows about char is that it is a -minimum-
> of 8 bits long.
>
> What might interest you, however is:
>
> wchar_t is value superset of char_t, so if you have an array of wchar_t
> and copy each member of a char array in the corresponding position in
> it, the result will be a valid wchar_t string representing the same text.


No, in the general case it is not!

On most of the Linux systems that I admin, wchar_t is UTF-32 and char is
UTF-8. In that case, if you simply copy each member of a char array in
the corresponding position to a wchar_t array, it will not be a valid
wchar_t string representing the same text!

The same is true for any encoding of the char array apart from ISO-8859-1.

The standard only guarantees the "value superset" semantics for the
_basic character set_. (Ref: C99 7.17 paragraph 2)

Assuming that wchar_t is either UTF-16 or UTF-32, then there is only
case where char arrays containing characters outside the basic character
set can be copied wholesale into wchar_t arrays. That is where the
encoding of the char array is ISO-8859-1.

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Simon.
 
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Stephen Sprunk
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      05-27-2006
"Walter Roberson" <(E-Mail Removed)-cnrc.gc.ca> wrote in message
news:e57imu$cj9$(E-Mail Removed)...
> If you have a (narrow) char string, you cannot convert it to
> a wchar_t string by setting your locale to "C" and then passing
> the string through mbstowcs(). That's because the "C" locale specifies
> a -particular- character encoding, and that encoding might not match
> the encoding of the execution character set, so mbstowcs() might
> map the characters to something unexpected, or could even fail
> (if the execution character set happened to use encodings that
> were incompatible with the encoding structure for the C locale
> character set.)
>
> Thus, in order to convert a char string into a wider string, you
> have to copy the chars one by one into an array of wchar_t .
> If you need to work with Unicode or utf-16 or whatever after that,
> then wcstombs() is what you should look at.


Please pardon the tangent...

Does anyone have a reference to _how to actually use_ the multi-byte / wide
functions in a real program? I've studied the documentation available, and
I can't make heads or tails of them or figure out how to do what I want.

Specifically, I'm looking for a way to read from a text file that is in one
multibyte encoding, manipulate the contents as wide chars, then write to a
text file that is in a _different_ multibyte encoding. I'm sure it's
simple, but I can't find any examples of code using the standard C
functions, just stuff like <OT>libiconv</OT>.

S

--
Stephen Sprunk "Stupid people surround themselves with smart
CCIE #3723 people. Smart people surround themselves with
K5SSS smart people who disagree with them." --Aaron Sorkin


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those who know me have no need of my name
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      05-28-2006
in comp.lang.c i read:

>Does anyone have a reference to _how to actually use_ the multi-byte /
>wide functions in a real program?


the main issue is that it is something of a portability nightmare, at least
without resorting to facilities beyond those in the c standard.

>Specifically, I'm looking for a way to read from a text file that is
>in one multibyte encoding, manipulate the contents as wide chars, then
>write to a text file that is in a _different_ multibyte encoding.


the main issue is setting the locales properly. since there are few
standards for the meaning of the names, and what few exist don't tend to be
strict, this means much guessing and potential failures. sometimes this is
a non-issue, as a single known (and working) locale is involved for input
and output.

secondarily is library conformance; specifically whether it supports amd1
or c99, vs plain old c89. without amd1 or later you need to read a string
then use mbstowcs to convert to a wide string, at which point you can
manipulate the various wchar_t. character by character is not possible
using just c89 facilities (unless you want to go into the business of
decoding character encodings yourself).

a program that counts upper-case characters looks nearly the same when
insensitive to locale:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <ctype.h>

int main(void)
{
unsigned long upper = 0;
int c;

while (EOF != (c = getc(stdin)))
if (isupper(c))
upper++;

printf("There were %lu upper-case characters.\n", upper);

return 0;
}

as when sensitive (w/amd1 or c99 conformance):

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <locale.h>
#include <wchar.h>
#include <wctype.h>

int main(void)
{
unsigned long upper = 0;
wint_t c;

if (0 ==
setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "")) /* environment specified locale */
{
fputs("your locale is invalid, the world ends\n", stderr);
abort();
}

while (WEOF != (c = getwc(stdin)))
if (iswupper(c))
upper++;

wprintf(L"There were %lu upper-case characters.\n", upper);

return 0;
}

but your desire for a different locale on output makes it tricky. worse,
switching between locales can have issues, so best to get everything done
with one locale before moving to the next. you might let the user specify
each, and pray they supply valid names:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <locale.h>
#include <wchar.h>
#include <wctype.h>

int main(void)
{
unsigned long upper = 0;
wint_t c;

if (3 != argc)
{
fputs("incorrect number of arguments\n", stderr);
fputs("supply input and output locale names\n", stderr);
abort();
}

if (0 ==
setlocale(LC_CTYPE, argv[1])) /* user specified input locale */
{
fputs("input locale is invalid, the world ends\n", stderr);
abort();
}
while (WEOF != (c = getwc(stdin)))
if (iswupper(c))
upper++;

if (0 ==
setlocale(LC_ALL, argv[2])) /* user specified output locale */
{
fputs("output locale is invalid, the world ends\n", stderr);
abort();
}
wprintf(L"There were %lu upper-case characters.\n", upper);

return 0;
}

though i've used wide string literals, and associated output functions, i
haven't actually shown anything that would make them useful, because the
form is implementation defined so anything outside the basic character set
may not be portable. wonderful, huh? now that isn't to say there is no
way to handle it, most people would use a localization (l10n) mechanism
like catgets or gettext so that the strings would be fetched from an
external resource which is aligned with the implementation requirements.
c99 provides a (somewhat clumsy) way to use iso-10646 characters in wide
string literals, which increases source portability -- i could have used
them here, though that would just make the "c99 isn't real" people come out
of the woodwork.

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