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MVC programming with python (newbie) - please help

 
 
bwaha
Guest
Posts: n/a
 
      01-06-2006
I'd appreciate some experience from the gurus out there to help me
understand how to implement MVC design in python code.

Entry number 5 on the wxpython wiki at
http://wiki.wxpython.org/index.cgi/BuildingControls discusses MVC design in
building reusable controls. The author (Terrel Shumway) suggests that
instead of:

quote:

class MyCoolListControl(...):
def __init__(self,parent,id,choices):
...
def InsertItem(...):
def AppendItem(...):

where choices is a static list, do something like this

class ListDataModel:
""" a minimal model interface to be used by MyCoolListControl """
def __len__(self):
""" return the number of items in the list """
def __getitem__(self,index):
""" return the specified item """

# consider notifications for observers (e.g. the list control)

# allow the user to define whatever mutators are appropriate


class MyCoolListControl(...):
def __init__(self,parent,id,model):
...
def [GS]etModel(self,model):
...

This allows the user (programmer) to store the data the way he thinks is
best, rather than having to copy the data into your structure whenever it
changes. It also reduces the need for kludges like [GS]etItemData for
maintaining association of the real data with its currently displayed string
representation.

endquote

The author refers to mvctree.py in wxPython as an example of MVC design.
However I'm still too green so I find that particular example too complex
and I'm not understanding the separation the author is recommending.

Can anyone explain to me further the simple example above and/or supply a
simple example of their own? At some level I feel like there's a benefit but
I'm failing to grasp it, and how to implement it. If I understand correctly
then in the future for example I could completely change how data is stored
in the class ListDataModel and not require a change in class
MyCoolListControl. Say, hypothetically, I wanted to implement ListDataModel
using a dictionary rather than, more naturally, a list, where the "list"
data structure is implemented as a dictionary and the list entries
correspond to dictionary keys (dictionary values are not used in this case).
Then if I understand the MVC concept, class MyCoolListControl need not
change at all. If that's true then that's really cool. But I don't get how
that works.

I think I need a little further expansion of the example or an alternative
(20-30 liner) that I can work through.

The question arises in the context of wanting to build a dialog with a tree
control that presents projects and studys as a tree and allows selection of
projects and studies as required by the user. I want to parse a file with
contents as follows:

BEGIN PROJECT "mpi6_0"
STUDY "Cyc0302_0" cyc0302_beanoz_x1.sdy
STUDY "Cyc0305_0" cyc0305_beanoz_x1.sdy
STUDY "Cyc0308_0" cyc0308_beanoz_x1.sdy
STUDY "Cyc0311_0" cyc0311_beanoz_x1.sdy
STUDY "Cyc0314_0" cyc0314_beanoz_x1.sdy
END PROJECT
BEGIN PROJECT "mpi6_1"
STUDY "Cyc0302_1" cyc0302_beanoz_x1.sdy
STUDY "Cyc0305_1" cyc0305_beanoz_x1.sdy
STUDY "Cyc0308_1" cyc0308_beanoz_x1.sdy
STUDY "Cyc0311_1" cyc0311_beanoz_x1.sdy
STUDY "Cyc0314_1" cyc0314_beanoz_x1.sdy
END PROJECT
....

I have wriiten a class as follows that extracts the data from the file.

import os

class ProjectFileDecoder:
"""
parse project file to obtain project names and associated studies and
study files
"""
def __init__(self, file):
self.projects = {}
self.parse_file(file)

def parse_file(self, file):
f = open(file, 'r')
dir = os.path.split(file)
while 1:
line = f.readline()
if 'BEGIN PROJECT' in line:
proj_name = line.strip().split('"')[1]
self.projects[proj_name] = {}
elif 'STUDY' in line:
study_name = (line.strip().split('"'))[1].strip()
study_file = dir[0] + '/' +
(line.strip().split('"'))[2].strip()
self.projects[proj_name][study_name] = study_file
elif not len(line):
f.close()
break

def getProjectNames(self):
return self.projects.keys()

def getStudyNames(self):
return [self.projects[i].keys() for i in self.getProjectNames()]

def getStudyFiles(self):
return [self.projects[i].values() for i in self.getProjectNames()]

At some level this seems to me like the class ListDataModel above. I just
need to make a MyTreeControl class. However here GS(et) routines are
implemented in the ProjectFileDecoder class (data model?) whereas in the
earlier advice they are in class MyCoolListControl. So I'm not understanding
how data gets from the DataModel class to the ListControl class. After all
the words I've said, I think that's the core misunderstanding I have.

Hope someone can help clear that up for me.

Chris






 
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Gerard Flanagan
Guest
Posts: n/a
 
      01-06-2006
bwaha wrote:

> I'd appreciate some experience from the gurus out there to help me
> understand how to implement MVC design in python code.
>


I'm neither a guru nor an expert, have never used wxpython, and am not
qualified to advise on MVC!! But until someone more qualified arrives
here's some code from a relative newbie.
It's maybe not of any use in itself, but hopefully it won't lead you
astray either.

Hope it helps.

Gerard




######## Model ########
class Study(object):
def __init__(self, name, file):
self.name = name
self.file = file

class Project(object):
def __init__(self, name):
self.name = name
self.studies = []
######## End Model ########

######## View ########
class TreeViewNode(object):
children = []
tag = "NODE"

class StudyNode(TreeViewNode):
def __init__(self, study):
self.tag = study.name
self.file = study.file
self.children = None

class ProjectNode(TreeViewNode):
def __init__(self, project):
self.tag = project.name
for study in project.studies:
self.children.append( StudyNode(study) )

class ProjectTreeView(TreeViewNode):
def __init__(self):
self.tag = "All Projects"

def add_node(self, node):
assert isinstance( node, ProjectNode )
self.children.append(node)
######## End View ########

data='''
BEGIN PROJECT "mpi6_0"
STUDY "Cyc0302_0" cyc0302_beanoz_x1.sdy
STUDY "Cyc0305_0" cyc0305_beanoz_x1.sdy
STUDY "Cyc0308_0" cyc0308_beanoz_x1.sdy
STUDY "Cyc0311_0" cyc0311_beanoz_x1.sdy
STUDY "Cyc0314_0" cyc0314_beanoz_x1.sdy
END PROJECT
BEGIN PROJECT "mpi6_1"
STUDY "Cyc0302_1" cyc0302_beanoz_x1.sdy
STUDY "Cyc0305_1" cyc0305_beanoz_x1.sdy
STUDY "Cyc0308_1" cyc0308_beanoz_x1.sdy
STUDY "Cyc0311_1" cyc0311_beanoz_x1.sdy
STUDY "Cyc0314_1" cyc0314_beanoz_x1.sdy
END PROJECT
'''

if __name__ == '__main__':
import StringIO
src = StringIO.StringIO(data)
projects = []
for line in src:
parts = line.split(' ')
begin = parts[0] == 'BEGIN'
studyline = parts[0] == 'STUDY'
end = parts[0] == 'END'
if begin == True:
project = Project( parts[2][1:-1] )
elif studyline == True:
project.studies.append( Study(parts[1][1:-1], parts[2]) )
elif end == True:
projects.append( project )

for proj in projects:
print 'PROJECT: ', proj.name
for study in proj.studies:
print '---- ', study.name

MyTreeView = ProjectTreeView()
for proj in projects:
MyTreeView.add_node( ProjectNode(proj) )
print MyTreeView

 
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Frank Niessink
Guest
Posts: n/a
 
      01-06-2006
bwaha wrote:
>
> At some level this seems to me like the class ListDataModel above. I just
> need to make a MyTreeControl class. However here GS(et) routines are
> implemented in the ProjectFileDecoder class (data model?) whereas in the
> earlier advice they are in class MyCoolListControl. So I'm not understanding
> how data gets from the DataModel class to the ListControl class. After all
> the words I've said, I think that's the core misunderstanding I have.
>
> Hope someone can help clear that up for me.


You may want to look at the wxPython "virtual" ListCtrl (see the
wxPython demo). Whenever a virtual ListCtrl is refreshed it will call
specific methods on itself to get the appropriate content, e.g.
OnGetItemText(self, rowIndex, columnIndex). You can do whatever you want
in that method as long as you return the text that has to be displayed
in the row with index rowIndex and the column with index columnIndex.
One option would be to subclass wx.ListCtrl and provide something like
your ListDataModel, like this (tested):

import wx

class MyCoolListControl(wx.ListCtrl):
def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
# don't pass the model argument to wx.ListCtrl:
self._model = kwargs.pop('model')
# force virtual mode:
kwargs['style'] = wx.LC_VIRTUAL|kwargs['style']
super(MyCoolListControl, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)

def OnGetItemText(self, rowIndex, columnIndex=0):
return self._model.getItemText(rowIndex, columnIndex)

# and similarly for OnGetItemImage and OnGetItemAttr


class ListDataModel(object):
def getItemText(self, rowIndex, columnIndex):
return 'Text in row %d, column %d'%(rowIndex, columnIndex)


app = wx.App(0)
model = ListDataModel()
window = wx.Frame(None)
cool = MyCoolListControl(window, model=model, style=wx.LC_LIST)
cool.SetItemCount(1000000) # This triggers a refresh of the list ctrl
window.Show()
app.MainLoop()



In a similar vein you could use this scheme for wx.TreeCtrl, though that
requires (much) more work because the TreeCtrl has no build-in virtual
mode. That's what I did for the TreeListCtrl in Task Coach
(http://taskcoach.niessink.com), see
http://cvs.sourceforge.net/viewcvs.p...py?view=markup

HTH, Frank
 
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Gerard Flanagan
Guest
Posts: n/a
 
      01-06-2006
bwaha wrote:

> I'd appreciate some experience from the gurus out there to help me
> understand how to implement MVC design in python code.
>



######## Model ########
class Study(object):
def __init__(self, name, file):
self.name = name
self.file = file

class Project(object):
def __init__(self, name):
self.name = name
self.studies = []
######## End Model ########

data='''
BEGIN PROJECT "mpi6_0"
STUDY "Cyc0302_0" cyc0302_beanoz_x1.sdy
STUDY "Cyc0305_0" cyc0305_beanoz_x1.sdy
STUDY "Cyc0308_0" cyc0308_beanoz_x1.sdy
STUDY "Cyc0311_0" cyc0311_beanoz_x1.sdy
STUDY "Cyc0314_0" cyc0314_beanoz_x1.sdy
END PROJECT
BEGIN PROJECT "mpi6_1"
STUDY "Cyc0302_1" cyc0302_beanoz_x1.sdy
STUDY "Cyc0305_1" cyc0305_beanoz_x1.sdy
STUDY "Cyc0308_1" cyc0308_beanoz_x1.sdy
STUDY "Cyc0311_1" cyc0311_beanoz_x1.sdy
STUDY "Cyc0314_1" cyc0314_beanoz_x1.sdy
END PROJECT
'''

if __name__ == '__main__':
import StringIO
src = StringIO.StringIO(data)
projects = []
for line in src:
parts = line.split(' ')
begin = parts[0] == 'BEGIN'
studyline = parts[0] == 'STUDY'
end = parts[0] == 'END'
if begin == True:
project = Project( parts[2][1:-1] )
elif studyline == True:
project.studies.append( Study(parts[1][1:-1], parts[2]) )
elif end == True:
projects.append( project )

for proj in projects:
print 'PROJECT: ', proj.name
for study in proj.studies:
print '---- ', study.name

 
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Gerard Flanagan
Guest
Posts: n/a
 
      01-06-2006
Gerard Flanagan wrote:

> bwaha wrote:
>
> > I'd appreciate some experience from the gurus out there to help me
> > understand how to implement MVC design in python code.
> >

>


Badly snipped, not pretending to be a 'guru'....


Gerard

 
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has
Guest
Posts: n/a
 
      01-07-2006
bwaha wrote:
> The author refers to mvctree.py in wxPython as an example of MVC design.
> However I'm still too green so I find that particular example too complex
> and I'm not understanding the separation the author is recommending.


MVC is all about separation of concerns.

The Model is responsible for managing the program's data (both private
and client data). The View/Controller is responsible for providing the
outside world with the means to interact with the program's client
data.

The Model provides an internal interface (API) to enable other parts of
the program to interact with it. The View/Controller provides an
external interface (GUI/CLI/web form/high-level IPC/etc.) to enable
everything outwith the program to communicate with it.

The Model is responsible for maintaining the integrity of the program's
data, because if that gets corrupted then it's game over for everyone.
The View/Controller is responsible for maintaining the integrity of the
UI, making sure all text views are displaying up-to-date values,
disabling menu items that don't apply to the current focus, etc.

The Model contains no View/Controller code; no GUI widget classes, no
code for laying out dialog boxes or receiving user input. The
View/Controller contains no Model code; no code for validating URLs or
performing SQL queries, and no original state either: any data held by
widgets is for display purposes only, and merely a reflection of the
true data stored in the Model.


Now, here's the test of a true MVC design: the program should in
essence be fully functional even without a View/Controller attached.
OK, the outside world will have trouble interacting with it in that
form, but as long as one knows the appropriate Model API incantations,
the program will hold and manipulate data as normal.

Why is this possible? Well, the simple answer is that it's all thanks
to the low coupling between the Model and View/Controller layers.
However, this isn't the full story. What's key to the whole MVC pattern
is the _direction_ in which those connection goes: ALL instructions
flow _from_ the View/Controller _to_ the Model. The Model NEVER tells
the View/Controller what to do.

Why? Because in MVC, while the View/Controller is permitted to know a
little about the Model (specifically, the Model's API), but the Model
is not allowed to know anything whatsoever about the View/Controller.

Why? Because MVC is about creating a clear separation of concerns.

Why? To help prevent program complexity spiralling out of control and
burying you, the developer, under it. The bigger the program, the
greater the number of components in that program. And the more
connections exist between those components, the harder it is for
developers to maintain/extend/replace individual components, or even
just follow how the whole system works. Ask yourself this: when looking
at a diagram of the program's structure, would you rather see a tree or
a cat's cradle? The MVC pattern avoids the latter by disallowing
circular connections: B can connect to A, but A cannot connect to B. In
this case, A is the Model and B is the View/Controller.

BTW, if you're sharp, you'll notice a problem with the 'one-way'
restriction just described: how can the Model inform the
View/Controller of changes in the Model's user data when the Model
isn't even allowed to know that the View/Controller, never mind send
messages to it? But don't worry: there is a solution to this, and it's
rather neat even if it does seem a bit roundabout at first. We'll get
back to that in a moment.


In practical terms, then, a View/Controller object may, via the Model's
API, 1. tell the Model to do things (execute commands), and 2. tell the
Model to give it things (return data). The View/Controller layer
*pushes instructions* to the Model layer and *pulls information* from
the Model layer.

And that's where your first MyCoolListControl example goes wrong,
because the API for that class requires that information be *pushed*
into it, so you're back to having a two-way coupling between layers,
violating the MVC rules and dumping you right back into the cat's
cradle architecture that you were [presumably] trying to avoid in the
first place.

Instead, the MyCoolListControl class should go with the flow, pulling
the data it needs from the layer below, when it needs it. In the case
of a list widget, that generally means asking how many values there are
and then asking for each of those items in turn, because that's about
the simplest and loosest way to do it and therefore keeps what coupling
there is to a minimum. And if the widget wants, say, to present those
values to the user in nice alphabetical order then that's its
perogative; and its responsibility, of course.


Now, one last conundrum, as I hinted at earlier: how do you keep the
UI's display synchronised with the Model's state in an MVC-based
system?

Here's the problem: many View objects are stateful, e.g. a checkbox may
be ticked or unticked, a text field may contain some editable text.
However, MVC dictates that all user data be stored in the Model layer,
so any data held by other layers for display purposes (the checkbox's
state, the text field's current text) must therefore be a subsidiary
copy of that primary Model data. But if the Model's state changes, the
View's copy of that state will no longer be accurate and needs to be
refreshed.

But how? The MVC pattern prevents the Model pushing a fresh copy of
that information into the View layer. Heck, it doesn't even allow the
Model to send the View a message to say its state has changed.

Well, almost. Okay, the Model layer isn't allowed to talk directly to
other layers, since to do so would require it knows something about
those layers, and MVC rules prevent that. However, if a tree falls in a
forest and nobody's around to hear it, does it make a sound?

The answer, you see, is to set up a notifications system, providing the
Model layer with a place it can announce to no-one in particular that
it has just done something interesting. Other layers can then post
listeners with that notification system to listen for those
announcements that they're actually interested in. The Model layer
doesn't need to know anything about who's listening (or even if anyone
is listening at all!); it just posts an announcement and then forgets
about it. And if anyone hears that announcement and feels like doing
something afterwards - like asking the Model for some new data so it
can update its on-screen display - then great. The Model just lists
what notifications it sends as part of its API definition; and what
anyone else does with that knowledge is up to them.

MVC is preserved, and everyone is happy. Your application framework may
well provide a built-in notifications system, or you can write your own
if not (see the 'observer pattern').

....

Anyway, hope that helps. Once you understand the motivations behind
MVC, the reasons why things are done the way they are starts to make
sense, even when - at first glance - they seem more complex than
necessary.

Cheers,

has

 
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bwaha
Guest
Posts: n/a
 
      01-08-2006

"Gerard Flanagan" <(E-Mail Removed)> wrote in message
news:(E-Mail Removed) oups.com...
> Gerard Flanagan wrote:
>
> > bwaha wrote:
> >
> > > I'd appreciate some experience from the gurus out there to help me
> > > understand how to implement MVC design in python code.
> > >

> >

>
> Badly snipped, not pretending to be a 'guru'....
>
>
> Gerard
>


You taught me something so in in some part at least you are. Thanks.



 
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bwaha
Guest
Posts: n/a
 
      01-08-2006

"bwaha" <(E-Mail Removed)> wrote in message
news:O5uvf.199294$(E-Mail Removed)...
> I'd appreciate some experience from the gurus out there to help me
> understand how to implement MVC design in python code.


<snip>

Thanks for all the help. Also this link was sent to me by pm and I found
this very useful too. Its a short wxpython MVC exmaple. (Thanks. Sanchit).

http://www.techietwo.com/detail-6332577.html




 
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has
Guest
Posts: n/a
 
      01-08-2006
bwaha wrote:
> The author refers to mvctree.py in wxPython as an example of MVC design.
> However I'm still too green so I find that particular example too complex
> and I'm not understanding the separation the author is recommending.


MVC is all about separation of concerns.

The Model is responsible for managing the program's data (both private
and client data). The View/Controller is responsible for providing the
outside world with the means to interact with the program's client
data.

The Model provides an internal interface (API) to enable other parts of
the program to interact with it. The View/Controller provides an
external interface (GUI/CLI/web form/high-level IPC/etc.) to enable
everything outwith the program to communicate with it.

The Model is responsible for maintaining the integrity of the program's
data, because if that gets corrupted then it's game over for everyone.
The View/Controller is responsible for maintaining the integrity of the
UI, making sure all text views are displaying up-to-date values,
disabling menu items that don't apply to the current focus, etc.

The Model contains no View/Controller code; no GUI widget classes, no
code for laying out dialog boxes or receiving user input. The
View/Controller contains no Model code; no code for validating URLs or
performing SQL queries, and no original state either: any data held by
widgets is for display purposes only, and merely a reflection of the
true data stored in the Model.


Now, here's the test of a true MVC design: the program should in
essence be fully functional even without a View/Controller attached.
OK, the outside world will have trouble interacting with it in that
form, but as long as one knows the appropriate Model API incantations,
the program will hold and manipulate data as normal.

Why is this possible? Well, the simple answer is that it's all thanks
to the low coupling between the Model and View/Controller layers.
However, this isn't the full story. What's key to the whole MVC pattern
is the _direction_ in which those connection goes: ALL instructions
flow _from_ the View/Controller _to_ the Model. The Model NEVER tells
the View/Controller what to do.

Why? Because in MVC, while the View/Controller is permitted to know a
little about the Model (specifically, the Model's API), but the Model
is not allowed to know anything whatsoever about the View/Controller.

Why? Because MVC is about creating a clear separation of concerns.

Why? To help prevent program complexity spiralling out of control and
burying you, the developer, under it. The bigger the program, the
greater the number of components in that program. And the more
connections exist between those components, the harder it is for
developers to maintain/extend/replace individual components, or even
just follow how the whole system works. Ask yourself this: when looking
at a diagram of the program's structure, would you rather see a tree or
a cat's cradle? The MVC pattern avoids the latter by disallowing
circular connections: B can connect to A, but A cannot connect to B. In
this case, A is the Model and B is the View/Controller.

BTW, if you're sharp, you'll notice a problem with the 'one-way'
restriction just described: how can the Model inform the
View/Controller of changes in the Model's user data when the Model
isn't even allowed to know that the View/Controller, never mind send
messages to it? But don't worry: there is a solution to this, and it's
rather neat even if it does seem a bit roundabout at first. We'll get
back to that in a moment.


In practical terms, then, a View/Controller object may, via the Model's
API, 1. tell the Model to do things (execute commands), and 2. tell the
Model to give it things (return data). The View/Controller layer
*pushes instructions* to the Model layer and *pulls information* from
the Model layer.

And that's where your first MyCoolListControl example goes wrong,
because the API for that class requires that information be *pushed*
into it, so you're back to having a two-way coupling between layers,
violating the MVC rules and dumping you right back into the cat's
cradle architecture that you were [presumably] trying to avoid in the
first place.

Instead, the MyCoolListControl class should go with the flow, pulling
the data it needs from the layer below, when it needs it. In the case
of a list widget, that generally means asking how many values there are
and then asking for each of those items in turn, because that's about
the simplest and loosest way to do it and therefore keeps what coupling
there is to a minimum. And if the widget wants, say, to present those
values to the user in nice alphabetical order then that's its
perogative; and its responsibility, of course.


Now, one last conundrum, as I hinted at earlier: how do you keep the
UI's display synchronised with the Model's state in an MVC-based
system?

Here's the problem: many View objects are stateful, e.g. a checkbox may
be ticked or unticked, a text field may contain some editable text.
However, MVC dictates that all user data be stored in the Model layer,
so any data held by other layers for display purposes (the checkbox's
state, the text field's current text) must therefore be a subsidiary
copy of that primary Model data. But if the Model's state changes, the
View's copy of that state will no longer be accurate and needs to be
refreshed.

But how? The MVC pattern prevents the Model pushing a fresh copy of
that information into the View layer. Heck, it doesn't even allow the
Model to send the View a message to say its state has changed.

Well, almost. Okay, the Model layer isn't allowed to talk directly to
other layers, since to do so would require it knows something about
those layers, and MVC rules prevent that. However, if a tree falls in a
forest and nobody's around to hear it, does it make a sound?

The answer, you see, is to set up a notifications system, providing the
Model layer with a place it can announce to no-one in particular that
it has just done something interesting. Other layers can then post
listeners with that notification system to listen for those
announcements that they're actually interested in. The Model layer
doesn't need to know anything about who's listening (or even if anyone
is listening at all!); it just posts an announcement and then forgets
about it. And if anyone hears that announcement and feels like doing
something afterwards - like asking the Model for some new data so it
can update its on-screen display - then great. The Model just lists
what notifications it sends as part of its API definition; and what
anyone else does with that knowledge is up to them.

MVC is preserved, and everyone is happy. Your application framework may
well provide a built-in notifications system, or you can write your own
if not (see the 'observer pattern').

....

Anyway, hope that helps. Once you understand the motivations behind
MVC, the reasons why things are done the way they are starts to make
sense, even when - at first glance - they seem more complex than
necessary.

Cheers,

has

 
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Scott David Daniels
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Posts: n/a
 
      01-08-2006
has wrote:
> MVC is all about separation of concerns....

This is a wonderful explanation of MVC. I'm going to keep a link to the
Google-Groups version just so I can cite it to those asking about MVC.

--Scott David Daniels
http://www.velocityreviews.com/forums/(E-Mail Removed)
 
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