Velocity Reviews > C++ > Rounding by prayer?

# Rounding by prayer?

Steven T. Hatton
Guest
Posts: n/a

 07-03-2004
I'm surprised I haven't hit this situation till now, but I don't believe
I've had to deal with it before. I have a function that sets the
components of a point class (QPoint from Qt). It takes integer arguments
for the components. I am calculating the values using transcendental
functions sin and cos which return floating point type values. (The
compiler claims they are double though I expected float in, float out.) I
guess I have some choices as to whether I pass the floating point values
and let the conversion take place automagically, or convert first and then
pass the resulting integers. How is such a situation typically handled in
C++?

So far as I know there is no explicit round() function native to C++ that
will round a float or double to an int or size_t. Is this correct?

Here's a code snippet that has the actual invocation in it:
namespace drawings
{
static float pi = acos(-1.0f); // not sure if static is right here.
StarFactory::StarFactory():
edgeLength(100.0f)
{
size_t n = StarFactory::NUMBER_OF_POINTS;
this->pointArrayPtr = new QPointArray(n);
float dTheta = 2.0f/float(n) * pi;
float l = this->edgeLength;
for(size_t i = 0; i < n; i++)
{
float theta = float(i) * dTheta;
/*The following line is where the conversion happens*/
this->pointArrayPtr->setPoint(i, l * cos(theta), l * sin(theta));
}
}

StarFactory::~StarFactory()
{
/// @todo destroy me
}
}
;

--
STH
Hatton's Law: "There is only One inviolable Law"
KDevelop: http://www.kdevelop.org SuSE: http://www.suse.com
Mozilla: http://www.mozilla.org

John Harrison
Guest
Posts: n/a

 07-03-2004
On Sat, 03 Jul 2004 04:18:37 -0400, Steven T. Hatton
<(E-Mail Removed)> wrote:

> I'm surprised I haven't hit this situation till now, but I don't believe
> I've had to deal with it before. I have a function that sets the
> components of a point class (QPoint from Qt). It takes integer arguments
> for the components. I am calculating the values using transcendental
> functions sin and cos which return floating point type values. (The
> compiler claims they are double though I expected float in, float out.)

You should normally use doubles. I can't see any reason not to in your
code. Obviously doubles have more precision and greater range, but
(apparently) on floating point hardware they are as fast as if, not
faster, than floats. So the only reason to use floats is to save space,
which isn't the case for your code.

> I
> guess I have some choices as to whether I pass the floating point values
> and let the conversion take place automagically, or convert first and
> then
> pass the resulting integers. How is such a situation typically handled in
> C++?

I usually write a simple round function, e.g.

int round(double x)
{
return static_cast<int>(d > 0 ? d + 0.5 : d - 0.5);
}

The 'automagic' conversion truncates towords zero, e.g.

1.9 ==> 1
-0.8 ==> 0

which doesn't sound like what you want.

>
> So far as I know there is no explicit round() function native to C++ that
> will round a float or double to an int or size_t. Is this correct?
>

Yes, presumably because there are several issues here. For instance which
algorithm to use for rounding (the above is only one possible), and how to
deal with overflow (which I've ignored above).

john

Sergey Khoroshavin
Guest
Posts: n/a

 07-03-2004

"John Harrison" <(E-Mail Removed)> wrote in message
newspsajzq9mf212331@andronicus...

> You should normally use doubles. I can't see any reason not to in your
> code. Obviously doubles have more precision and greater range, but
> (apparently) on floating point hardware they are as fast as if, not
> faster, than floats. So the only reason to use floats is to save space,
> which isn't the case for your code.

In fact, there is a real performance difference. Once I had to write FFT
(fast fourier transform) algorithm in C++, and version which used
float numbers worked about 2.5 times faster than version which used
double numbers. If it matters, PC was based on AMD Duron processor,
and compiler was from Borland C++ Builder 5.

Steven T. Hatton
Guest
Posts: n/a

 07-03-2004
John Harrison wrote:

> You should normally use doubles. I can't see any reason not to in your
> code. Obviously doubles have more precision and greater range, but
> (apparently) on floating point hardware they are as fast as if, not
> faster, than floats. So the only reason to use floats is to save space,
> which isn't the case for your code.

I'm not even sure why I was using float there. Perhaps I just followed some
sample code. I've found a lot of C++ stuff uses floats where I would have
expected doubles. I will keep this issue in mind. My guess is the
performance impact could well be sensitive to the hardware, compiler, and
context. (ACK: I have read Sergey's response).

> I usually write a simple round function, e.g.
>
> int round(double x)
> {
> return static_cast<int>(d > 0 ? d + 0.5 : d - 0.5);
> }
>
> The 'automagic' conversion truncates towords zero, e.g.
>
> 1.9 ==> 1
> -0.8 ==> 0
>
> which doesn't sound like what you want.

I'm under the impression this is implementation dependent. I've only
glanced at the discussion, but it looks like the rounding style is part of
the descriptive datastructure required by the Standard. I'm looking at
18.2.1
namespace std {
template<class T> class numeric_limits {
public:
static const bool is_specialized = false;
static T min() throw();
static T max() throw();
static const int digits = 0;
static const int digits10 = 0;
static const bool is_signed = false;
static const bool is_integer = false;
static const bool is_exact = false;
static const int radix = 0;
static T epsilon() throw();
static T round_error() throw();
static const int min_exponent = 0;
static const int min_exponent10 = 0;
static const int max_exponent = 0;
static const int max_exponent10 = 0;
static const bool has_infinity = false;
static const bool has_quiet_NaN = false;
static const bool has_signaling_NaN = false;
static const float_denorm_style has_denorm = denorm_absent;
static const bool has_denorm_loss = false;
static T infinity() throw();
static T quiet_NaN() throw();
static T signaling_NaN() throw();
static T denorm_min() throw();
static const bool is_iec559 = false;
static const bool is_bounded = false;
static const bool is_modulo = false;
static const bool traps = false;
static const bool tinyness_before = false;
static const float_round_style round_style = round_toward_zero;
};
}
...

static const float_round_style round_style;
63 The rounding style for the type.206)

64 Meaningful for all floating point types. Specializations for integer
types shall return round_toward_zero.

18.2.1.3 Type float_round_style
namespace std {
enum float_round_style {
round_indeterminate = -1,
round_toward_zero = 0,
round_to_nearest = 1,
round_toward_infinity = 2,
round_toward_neg_infinity =3
};
}

>>
>> So far as I know there is no explicit round() function native to C++ that
>> will round a float or double to an int or size_t. Is this correct?
>>

>
> Yes, presumably because there are several issues here. For instance which
> algorithm to use for rounding (the above is only one possible), and how to
> deal with overflow (which I've ignored above).
>
> john

For now I think I'll buy the quick and dirty default behavior. If I can see
the consequence in the graphics, I'll consider a better solution.

--
STH
Hatton's Law: "There is only One inviolable Law"
KDevelop: http://www.kdevelop.org SuSE: http://www.suse.com
Mozilla: http://www.mozilla.org

John Harrison
Guest
Posts: n/a

 07-03-2004
On Sat, 03 Jul 2004 09:01:25 -0400, Steven T. Hatton
<(E-Mail Removed)> wrote:

> John Harrison wrote:
>
>
>> You should normally use doubles. I can't see any reason not to in your
>> code. Obviously doubles have more precision and greater range, but
>> (apparently) on floating point hardware they are as fast as if, not
>> faster, than floats. So the only reason to use floats is to save space,
>> which isn't the case for your code.

>
> I'm not even sure why I was using float there. Perhaps I just followed
> some
> sample code. I've found a lot of C++ stuff uses floats where I would
> have
> expected doubles. I will keep this issue in mind. My guess is the
> performance impact could well be sensitive to the hardware, compiler, and
> context. (ACK: I have read Sergey's response).

I'm sure that's right.

>
>> I usually write a simple round function, e.g.
>>
>> int round(double x)
>> {
>> return static_cast<int>(d > 0 ? d + 0.5 : d - 0.5);
>> }
>>
>> The 'automagic' conversion truncates towords zero, e.g.
>>
>> 1.9 ==> 1
>> -0.8 ==> 0
>>
>> which doesn't sound like what you want.

>
> I'm under the impression this is implementation dependent. I've only
> glanced at the discussion, but it looks like the rounding style is part
> of
> the descriptive datastructure required by the Standard. I'm looking at
> 18.2.1

[snip]

>

This is covered explicitly in 4.9 para 1, 'An rvalue of a floating point
type can be converted to an rvalue of an integer type. The conversion
truncates; that is, the fractional part is discarded.'

>>>
>>> So far as I know there is no explicit round() function native to
>>> C++ that
>>> will round a float or double to an int or size_t. Is this correct?
>>>

>>
>> Yes, presumably because there are several issues here. For instance
>> which
>> algorithm to use for rounding (the above is only one possible), and how
>> to
>> deal with overflow (which I've ignored above).
>>
>> john

>
> For now I think I'll buy the quick and dirty default behavior. If I can
> see
> the consequence in the graphics, I'll consider a better solution.
>

john

Mark A. Gibbs
Guest
Posts: n/a

 07-03-2004

Steven T. Hatton wrote:

> guess I have some choices as to whether I pass the floating point values
> and let the conversion take place automagically, or convert first and then
> pass the resulting integers. How is such a situation typically handled in
> C++?

it's been a long, long time since i've had to do any serious math
programming that involved converting to integers. but i seem to recall
that standard behavour is simple truncation.

1.1 -> 1
1.9 -> 1
0.1 -> 0
0.9 -> 0

aka rounding towards 0.

> So far as I know there is no explicit round() function native to C++ that
> will round a float or double to an int or size_t. Is this correct?

i honestly can't remember, but it's easy enough to emulate:

// not considering -ve
double round(double d)
{
return (fmod(d, 1.0) > 0.5) ? ceil(d) : floor(d);
}

i remember once for some reason we did one that was something like this:

// not considering -ve, this is just a vague memory
double round(double d)
{
double r = fmod(fabs(d), 2.0);
if (r >= 1.0) // odd
{
return (r > 1.5) ? ceil(d) : floor(d);
}
else // even
{
return (r >= 0.5) ? ceil(d) : floor(d);
}
}

though i can't remember why. i think it was required by a prof. these
days i don't exactly strive for techincal accuracy. close enough is good
enough.

if you want speed, and you know you're converting anyway, you might want
to just write a conversion function.

int double_to_int(double d)
{
if (fmod(fabs(d), 1.0) > 0.5)
{
int i = int(d);
return i < 0 ? --i : ++i;
}
else
{
return int(d);
}
}

> namespace drawings
> {
> static float pi = acos(-1.0f); // not sure if static is right here.

no, not really, more like const. but have you ruled out M_PI?

mark

Peter van Merkerk
Guest
Posts: n/a

 07-05-2004
Sergey Khoroshavin wrote:
> "John Harrison" <(E-Mail Removed)> wrote in message
> newspsajzq9mf212331@andronicus...
>
>>You should normally use doubles. I can't see any reason not to in your
>>code. Obviously doubles have more precision and greater range, but
>>(apparently) on floating point hardware they are as fast as if, not
>>faster, than floats. So the only reason to use floats is to save space,
>>which isn't the case for your code.

>
> In fact, there is a real performance difference. Once I had to write FFT
> (fast fourier transform) algorithm in C++, and version which used
> float numbers worked about 2.5 times faster than version which used
> double numbers. If it matters, PC was based on AMD Duron processor,
> and compiler was from Borland C++ Builder 5.

One possible reason for the speed difference is that floats use less
memory. Therefore floats are less likely to trash the cache and consume
less memory bandwidth, which is a concern when the clockspeed of the
processor is much higher than the memory.

--
Peter van Merkerk
peter.van.merkerk(at)dse.nl

Richard Herring
Guest
Posts: n/a

 07-05-2004
In message <(E-Mail Removed)>, Steven T. Hatton
<(E-Mail Removed)> writes
>John Harrison wrote:
>
>
>> You should normally use doubles. I can't see any reason not to in your
>> code. Obviously doubles have more precision and greater range, but
>> (apparently) on floating point hardware they are as fast as if, not
>> faster, than floats. So the only reason to use floats is to save space,
>> which isn't the case for your code.

>
>I'm not even sure why I was using float there. Perhaps I just followed some
>sample code. I've found a lot of C++ stuff uses floats where I would have
>expected doubles. I will keep this issue in mind. My guess is the
>performance impact could well be sensitive to the hardware, compiler, and
>context. (ACK: I have read Sergey's response).
>
>> I usually write a simple round function, e.g.
>>
>> int round(double x)
>> {
>> return static_cast<int>(d > 0 ? d + 0.5 : d - 0.5);
>> }
>>
>> The 'automagic' conversion truncates towords zero, e.g.
>>
>> 1.9 ==> 1
>> -0.8 ==> 0
>>
>> which doesn't sound like what you want.

>
>I'm under the impression this is implementation dependent. I've only
>glanced at the discussion, but it looks like the rounding style is part of
>the descriptive datastructure required by the Standard.

"Rounding style" refers to what it does when a calculation produces more
digits than it can store, not how it converts float to int, which, as
John Harrison pointed out, is well defined in 4.9.

PS Although there's no std::round, don't overlook std::floor and
std::ceil, which are useful for some other calculations.

--
Richard Herring