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comp.lang.vhdl FAQ part 4 of 4: glossary

 
 
Edwin Naroska
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      07-08-2003
Posted-By: auto-faq 3.3 (Perl 5.00

comp.lang.vhdl

Frequently Asked Questions And Answers (Part 4): VHDL Glossary

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Preliminary Remarks

This part of the FAQ is reprinted from IEEE Std 1076-1993 IEEE Standard VHDL
Language Reference Manual, Copyright 1994 by the Institute of Electrical
and Electronics Engineers, Inc. The IEEE disclaims any responsibility or
liability resulting from the placement and use in this product. Information
is reprinted with the permission of the IEEE. Further distribution is not
permitted without consent of the IEEE Standards Department.

This is a monthly posting to comp.lang.vhdl containing a VHDL glossary.
Please send additional information directly to the editor:
extern_mref((E-Mail Removed)-technik.uni-dortmund.de (Edwin Naroska))

Corrections and suggestions are appreciated. Thanks for all corrections.

There are three other regular postings: part 1 lists general information on
VHDL, part 2 lists books on VHDL, part 3 lists products and services
(PD+commercial).

The following text is reprinted from the Annex B of the IEEE Std 1076-1993
IEEE Standard VHDL Language Reference Manual. Text added by the editor of
the FAQ is enclosed in square brackets "[]". Note, the html links and the
examples are not part of the original IEEE document.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------------------

VHDL Glossary

This glossary contains brief, informal descriptions for a number of terms
and phrases used to define this language. The complete, formal definition of
each term or phrase is provided in the main body of the standard.

For each entry, the relevant clause numbers [(of the VHDL Language Reference
Manual)] in the text are given. Some descriptions refer to multiple clauses
in which the single concept is discussed; for these, the clause number
containing the definition of the concept is given in italics. Other
descriptions contain multiple clause numbers when they refer to multiple
concepts; for these, none of the clause numbers are italicized.

B.1 abstract literal: A literal of the universal_real abstract type or the
universal_integer abstract type. (13.2, 13.4)

B.2 access type: A type that provides access to an object of a given type.
Access to such an object is achieved by an access value returned by an
allocator; the access value is said to designate the object. (3, 13.3)

[Example E.1]

B.3 access mode: The mode in which a file object is opened, which can be
either read-only or write-only. The access mode depends on the value
supplied to the Open_Kind parameter. (3.4.1, 14.3).

B.4 access value: A value of an access type. This value is returned by an
allocator and designates an object (which must be a variable) of a given
type. A null access value designates no object. An access value can only
designate an object created by an allocator; it cannot designate an object
declared by an object declaration. (3, 3.3)

[Example E.1]

B.5 active driver: A driver that acquires a new value during a simulation
cycle regardless of whether the new value is different from the previous
value. (12.6.2, 12.6.4)

B.6 actual: An expression, a port, a signal, or a variable associated with a
formal port, formal parameter, or formal generic. (1.1.1.1, 1.1.1.2,
3.2.1.1, 4.3.1.2, 4.3.2.2, 5.2.1, 5.2.1.2)

B.7 aggregate:

1. The kind of expression, denoting a value of a composite type. The value
is specified by giving the value of each of the elements of the
composite type. Either a positional association or a named association
may be used to indicate which value is associated with which element.
2. A kind of target of a variable assignment statement or signal
assignment statement assigning a composite value. The target is then
said to be in the form of an aggregate. (7.3.1, 7.3.2, 7.3.4, 7.3.5,
7.5.2)

[Example E.2]

B.8 alias: An alternate name for a named entity. (4.3.3)

B.9 allocator: An operation used to create anonymous, variable objects
accessible by means of access values. (3.3, 7.3.6)

B.10 analysis: The syntactic and semantic analysis of source code in a VHDL
design file and the insertion of intermediate form representations of design
units into a design library. (1 1.1, 11.2, 11.4)

B.11 anonymous: The undefined simple name of an item, which is created
implicitly. The base type of a numeric type or an array type is anonymous;
similarly, the object denoted by an access value is anonymous. (4.1)

B.12 appropriate: A prefix is said to be appropriate for a type if the type
of the prefix is the type considered, or if the type of the prefix is an
access type whose designated type is the type considered. (6.1)

B.13 architecture body: A body associated with an entity declaration to
describe the internal organization or operation of a design entity. An
architecture body is used to describe the behavior, data flow, or structure
of a design entity. (1, 1.2)

B.14 array object: An object of an array type. (3)

[Example E.3]

B.15 array type: A type, the value of which consists of elements that are
all of the same subtype (and hence, of the same type). Each element is
uniquely distinguished by an index (for a one-dimensional array) or by a
sequence of indexes (for a multidimensional array). Each index must be a
value of a discrete type and must lie in the correct index range. (3.2.1)

[Example E.3]

B.16 ascending range: A range L to R. (3.1)

B.17 : The American Standard Code for Information Interchange. The package
Standard contains the definition of the type Character, the first 128 values
of which represent the character set. (3.1.1, 14.2)

B.18 assertion violation: A violation that occurs when the condition of an
assertion statement evaluates to false. (8.2)

[Example E.4]

B.19 associated driver: The single driver for a signal in the (explicit or
equivalent) process statement containing the signal assignment statement.
(12.6.1)

B.20 associated in whole: When a single association element of a composite
formal supplies the association for the entire formal. (4.3.2.2)

B.21 associated individually: A property of a formal port, generic, or
parameter of a composite type with respect to some association list. A
composite formal whose association is defined by multiple association
elements in a single association list is said to be associated individually
in that list. The formats of such association elements must denote
non-overlapping subelements or slices of the formal. (4.3.2.2)

B.22 association element: An element that associates an actual or local with
a local or formal. (4.3.2.2)

B.23 association list: A list that establishes correspondences between
formal or local port or parameter names and local or actual names or
expressions. (4.3.2.2)

B.24 attribute: A definition of some characteristic of a named entity. Some
attributes are predefined for types, ranges, values, signals, and functions.
The remaining attributes are user defined and are always constants. (4.4)

[Example E.5]

B.25 base specifier: A lexical element that indicates whether a bit string
literal is to be interpreted as a binary, octal, or hexadecimal value.
(13.7)

B.26 base type: The type from which a subtype defines a subset of possible
values, otherwise known as a constraint. This subset is not required to be
proper. The base type of a type is the type itself. The base type of a
subtype is found by recursively examining the type mark in the subtype
indication defining the subtype. If the type mark denotes a type, that type
is the base type of the subtype; otherwise, the type mark is a subtype, and
this procedure is repeated on that subtype. (3) See also subtype.

[Example E.6]

B.27 based literal: An abstract literal expressed in a form that specifies
the base explicitly. The base is restricted to the range 2 to 16. (13.4.2)

B.28 basic operation: An operation that is inherent in one of the following:

1. An assignment (in an assignment statement or initialization);
2. An allocator;
3. A selected name, an indexed name. or a slice name;
4. A qualification (in a qualified expression), an explicit type
conversion, a formal or actual designator in the form of a type
conversion, or an implicit type conversion of a value of type
universal_integer or universal_real to the corresponding value of
another numeric type; or
5. A numeric literal (for a universal type), the literal null (for an
access type), a string literal, a bit string literal, an aggregate, or
a predefined attribute. (3)

B.29 basic signal: A signal that determines the driving values for all other
signals. A basic signal is

* Either a scalar signal or a resolved signal;
* Not a subelement of a resolved signal;
* Not an implicit signal of the form S'Stable(T), S'Quiet(T), or
S'Transaction; and
* Not an implicit signal GUARD. (12.6.2)

B.30 belong (to a range): A property of a value with respect to some range.
The value V is said to belong to a range if the relations ( lower bound <=
V) and (V <= upper bound) are both true, where lower bound and upper bound
are the lower and upper bounds, respectively, of the range. (3.1, 3.2.1)

B.31 belong (to a subtype): A property of a value with respect to some
subtype. A value is said to belong to a subtype of a given type if it
belongs to the type and satisfies the applicable constraint. (3, 3.2.1)

B.32 binding: The process of associating a design entity and, optionally, an
architecture with an instance of a component. A binding can be specified in
an explicit or a default binding indication. (1.3, 5.2.1, 5.2.2,
12.3.2.2, 12.4.3)

B.33 bit string literal: A literal formed by a sequence of extended digits
enclosed between two quotation (") characters and preceded by a base
specifier. The type of a bit string literal is determined from the context.
(7.3.1, 13.7)

[Example E.7]

B.34 block: The representation of a portion of the hierarchy of a design. A
block is either an external block or an internal block. (1, 1.1.1.1,
1.1.1.2, 1.2.1, 1.3, 1.3.1, 1.3.2)

[Example E.8]

B.35 bound: A label that is identified in the instantiation list of a
configuration specification. (5.2)

B.36 box: The symbol <> in an index subtype definition, which stands for an
undefined range. Different objects of the type need not have the same bounds
and direction. (3.2.1)

B.37 bus: One kind of guarded signal. A bus floats to a user-specified value
when all of its drivers are turned off. (4.3.1.2, 4.3.2)

B.38 character literal: A literal of the character type. Character literals
are formed by enclosing one of the graphic characters (including the space
and nonbreaking space characters) between two apostrophe (') characters.
(13.2, 13.5)

B.39 character type: An enumeration type with at least one character literal
among its enumeration literals. (3.1.1, 3.1.1.1)

B.40 closely related types: Two type marks that denote the same type or two
numeric types. Two array types may also be closely related if they have the
same dimensionality, if their index types at each position are closely
related, and if the array types have the same element types. Explicit type
conversion is only allowed between closely related types. (7.3.5)

B.41 complete: A loop that has finished executing. Similarly, an iteration
scheme of a loop is complete when the condition of a while iteration scheme
is FALSE or all of the values of the discrete range of a for iteration
scheme have been assigned to the iteration parameter. (8.9)

B.42 complete context: A declaration, a specification, or a statement;
complete contexts are used in overload resolution. (10.5)

B.43 composite type: A type whose values have elements. There are two
classes of composite types: array types and record types. (3, 3.2)

[Example E.3]

B.44 concurrent statement: A statement that executes asynchronously, with no
defined relative order. Concurrent statements are used for dataflow and
structural descriptions. (9)

[Example E.9]

B.45 configuration: A construct that defines how component instances in a
given block are bound to design entities in order to describe how design
entities are put together to form a complete design. (1, 1.3. 5.2)

B.46 conform: Two subprogram specifications, are said to conform if, apart
from certain allowed minor variations, both specifications are formed by the
same sequence of lexical elements, and corresponding lexical elements are
given the same meaning by the visibility rules. Conformance is defined
similarly for deferred constant declarations. (2.7)

B.47 connected: A formal port associated with an actual port or signal. A
formal port associated with the reserved word open is said to be
unconnected. (1.1.1.2)

B.48 constant: An object whose value may not be changed. Constants may be
explicitly declared, subelements of explicitly declared constants, or
interface constants. Constants declared in packages may also be deferred
constants. (4.3.1.1)

B.49 constraint: A subset of the values of a type. The set of possible
values for an object of a given type that can be subjected to a condition
called a constraint. A value is said to satisfy the constraint if it
satisfies the corresponding condition. There are index constraints, range
constraints, and size constraints. (3)

B.50 conversion function: A function used to convert values flowing through
associations. For interface objects of mode in, conversion functions are
allowed only on actuals. For interface objects of mode out or buffer,
conversion functions are allowed only on formals. For interface objects of
mode inout or linkage, conversion functions are allowed on both formals and
actuals. Conversion functions have a single parameter. A conversion function
associated with an actual accepts the type of the actual and returns the
type of the formal. A conversion function associated with a formal accepts
the type of the formal and returns the type of the actual. (4.3.2.2)

B.51 convertible: A property of an operand with respect to some type. An
operand is convertible to some type if there exists an implicit conversion
to that type. (7.3.5)

B.52 current value: The value component of the single transaction of a
driver whose time component is not greater than the current simulation time.
(12.6. 12.6.1, 12.6.2, 12.6.3)

B.53 decimal literal: An abstract literal that is expressed in decimal
notation. The base of the literal is implicitly 10. The literal may
optionally contain an exponent or a decimal point and fractional part.
(13.4.1)

B.54 declaration: A construct that defines a declared entity and associates
an identifier (or some other notation) with it. This association is in
effect within a region of text that is called the scope of the declaration.
Within the scope of a declaration, there are places where it is possible to
use the identifier to refer to the associated declared entity; at such
places, the identifier is said to be the simple name of the named entity.
The simple name is said to denote the associated named entity. (4)

B.55 declarative part: A syntactic component of certain declarations or
statements (such as entity declarations, architecture bodies, and block
statements). The declarative part defines the lexical area (usually
introduced by a keyword such as is and terminated with another keyword such
as begin) within which declarations may occur. (1.1.2, 1.2.1, 1.3, 2.6,
9.1, 9.2, 9.6.1, 9.6.2)

B.56 declarative region: A semantic component of certain declarations or
statements. A declarative region may include disjoint parts, such as the
declarative region of an entity declaration, which extends to the end of any
architecture body for that entity. (10.1)

B.57 decorate: To associate a user-defined attribute with a named entity and
to {define} the value of that attribute. (5.1)

B.58 default expression: A default value that is used for a formal generic,
port, or parameter if the interface object is unassociated. A default
expression is also used to provide an initial value for signals and their
drivers. (4.3.1.2, 4.3.2.2)

[Example E.10]

B.59 deferred constant: A constant that is declared without an assignment
symbol (:=) and expression in a package declaration. A corresponding full
declaration of the constant must exist in the package body to define the
value of the constant. (4.3.1.1)

[Example E.11]

B.60 delta cycle: A simulation cycle in which the simulation time at the
beginning of the cycle is the same as at the end of the cycle. That is,
simulation time is not advanced in a delta cycle. Only nonpostponed
processes can be executed during a delta cycle. (12.6.4)

B.61 denote: A property of the identifier given in a declaration. Where the
declaration is visible, the identifier given in the declaration is said to
denote the named entity declared in the declaration. (4)

B.62 depend (on a library unit): A design unit that explicitly or implicitly
mentions other library units in a use clause. These dependencies affect the
allowed order of analysis of design units. (11.4)

B.63 depend (on a signal value): A property of an implicit signal with
respect to some other signal. The current value of an implicit signal R is
said to depend on the current value of another signal S if R denotes an
implicit signal S'Stable(T), S'Quiet(T), or S'Transaction, or if R denotes
an implicit GUARD signal and S is any other implicit signal named within the
guard expression that defines the current value of R. (12.6.3)

B.64 descending range: A range L downto R. (3.1)

B.65 design entity: An entity declaration together with an associated
architecture body. Different design entities may share the same entity
declaration, thus describing different components with the same interface or
different views of the same component. (1)

B.66 design file: One or more design units in sequence. (1.1)

B.67 design hierarchy: The complete representation of a design that results
from the successive decomposition of a design entity into subcomponents and
binding of those components to other design entities that may be decomposed
in a similar manner. (1)

B.68 design library: A host-dependent storage facility for intermediate-form
representations of analyzed design units. (11.2)

B.69 design unit: A construct that can be independently analyzed and stored
in a design library. A design unit may be an entity declaration, an
architecture body, a configuration declaration, a package declaration, or a
package body declaration. (11.1)

B.70 designate: A property of access values that relates the value to some
object when the access value is nonnull. A nonnull access value is said to
designate an object. (3.3)

B.71 designated subtype: For an access type, the subtype defined by the
subtype indication of the access type definition. (3.3)

B.72 designated type: For an access type, the base type of the subtype
defined by the subtype indication of the access type definition. (3.3)

B.73 designator:

1. Syntax that forms part of an association element. A formal designator
specifies which formal parameter, port, or generic (or which subelement
or slice of a parameter, port, or generic) is to be associated with an
actual by the given association element. An actual designator specifies
which actual expression, signal, or variable is to be associated with a
formal (or subelement or subelements of a formal). An actual designator
may also specify that the formal in the given association element is to
be left unassociated (with an actual designator of open). (4.3.2.2)
2. An identifier, character literal, or operator symbol that defines an
alias for some other name. (4.3.3)
3. A simple name that denotes a predefined or user-defined attribute in an
attribute name, or a user-defined attribute in an attribute
specification. (5.1, 6.6)
4. An simple name, character literal, or operator symbol, and possibly a
signature, that denotes a named entity in the entity name list of an
attribute specification. (5.1)
5. An identifier or operator symbol that defines the name of a subprogram.
(2.1)

B.74 directly visible: A visible declaration that is not visible by
selection. A declaration is directly visible within its immediate scope,
excluding any places where the declaration is hidden. A declaration
occurring immediately within the visible part of a package can be made
directly visible by means of a use clause. (10.3, 10.4). See also visible.

B.75 discrete array: A one-dimensional array whose elements are of a
discrete type. (7.2.3)

B.76 discrete range: A range whose bounds are of a discrete type. (3.2.1,
3.2.1.1)

B.77 discrete type: An enumeration type or an integer type. Each value of a
discrete type has a position number that is an integer value. Indexing and
iteration rules use values of discrete types. (3.1)

B.78 driver: A container for a projected output waveform of a signal. The
value of the signal is a function of the current values of its drivers. Each
process that assigns to a given signal implicitly contains a driver for that
signal. A signal assignment statement affects only the associated driver(s).
(12.4.4, 12.6.1, 12.6.2, 12.6.3)

B.79 driving value: The value a signal provides as a source of other
signals. (12.6.2)

B.80 effective value: The value obtained by evaluating a reference to the
signal within an expression. (12.6.2)

B.81 elaboration: The process by which a declaration achieves its effect.
Prior to the completion of its elaboration (including before the
elaboration), a declaration is not yet elaborated. (12)

B.82 element: A constituent of a composite type. (3) See also subelement.

B.83 entity declaration: A definition of the interface between a given
design entity and the environment in which it is used. It may also specify
declarations and statements that are part of the design entity. A given
entity declaration may be shared by many design entities, each of which has
a different architecture. Thus, an entity declaration can potentially
represent a class of design entities, each with the same interface. (1,
1.1)

B.84 enumeration literal: A literal of an enumeration type. An enumeration
literal may be either an identifier or a character literal. (5.1.1, 7.3.1)

B.85 enumeration type: A type whose values are defined by listing
(enumerating) them. The values of the type are represented by enumeration
literals. (3.1, 3.1.1)

[Example E.13]

B.86 error: A condition that makes the source description illegal. If an
error is detected at the time of analysis of a design unit, it prevents the
creation of a library unit for the given design unit. A run-time error
causes simulation to terminate. (11.4)

B.87 erroneous: An error condition that cannot always be detected.
(2.1.1.1, 2.2)

B.88 event: A change in the current value of a signal, which occurs when the
signal is updated with its effective value. (12.6.2)

B.89 execute:

1. When first the design hierarchy of a model is elaborated, then its nets
are initialized, and finally simulation proceeds with repetitive
execution of the simulation cycle, during which processes are executed
and nets are updated.
2. When a process performs the actions specified by the algorithm
described in its statement part. (12, 12.6)

B.90 expanded name: A selected name (in the syntactic sense) that denotes
one or all of the primary units in a library or any named entity within a
primary unit. (6.3, 8.1) See also selected name.

B.91 explicit ancestor: The parent of the implicit signal that is defined by
the predefined attributes 'DELAYED, 'QUIET, 'STABLE, or 'TRANSACTION. It is
determined using the prefix of the attribute. If the prefix denotes an
explicit signal or (or member thereof), then that is the explicit ancestor
of the implicit signal. If the prefix is one of the implicit signals defined
by the predefined attributes 'DELAYED, 'QUIET, 'STABLE, or 'TRANSACTION,
this rule is applied recursively. If the prefix is an implicit signal GUARD,
the signal has no explicit ancestor. (2.2)

B.92 explicit signal: A signal defined by the predefined attributes
'DELAYED, 'QUIET, 'STABLE, or 'TRANSACTION. (2.2)

B.93 explicitly declared constant: A constant of a specified type that is
declared by a constant declaration. (4.3.1.1)

B.94 explicitly declared object: An object of a specified type that is
declared by an object declaration. An object declaration is called a
single-object declaration if its identifier list has a single identifier; it
is called a multiple-object declaration if the identifier list has two or
more identifiers. (4.3, 4.3.1) See also implicitly declared object.

B.95 expression: A formula that defines the computation of a value. (7.1)

B.96 extend: A property of source text forming a declarative region with
disjoint parts. In a declarative region with disjoint parts, if a portion of
text is said to extend from some specific point of a declarative region to
the end of the region, then this portion is the corresponding subset of the
declarative region (and does not include intermediate declarative items
between an interface declaration and a corresponding body declaration).
(10.1)

B.97 extended digit: A lexical element that is either a digit or a letter.
(13.4.2)

B.98 external block: A top-level design entity that resides in a library and
may be used as a component in other designs. (1)

B.99 file type: A type that provides access to objects containing a sequence
of values of a given type. File types are typically used to access files in
the host system environment. The value of a file object is the sequence of
values contained in the host system file. (3, 3.4)

B.100 floating point types: A discrete scalar type whose values approximate
real numbers. The representation of a floating point type includes a minimum
of six decimal digits of precision. (3.1, 3.1.4)

B.101 foreign subprogram: A subprogram that is decorated with the attribute
'FOREIGN, defined in package STANDARD. The STRING value of the attribute may
specify implementation-dependent information about the foreign subprogram.
Foreign subprograms may have non-VHDL implementations. An implementation may
place restrictions on the allowable modes, classes, and types of the formal
parameters to a foreign subprogram, such as constraints on the number and
allowable order of the parameters. (2.2)

B.102 formal: A formal port or formal generic of a design entity, a block
statement, or a formal parameter of a subprogram. (2.1.1, 4.3.2.2,
5.2.1.2, 9.1)

B.103 full declaration: A constant declaration occurring in a package body
with the same identifier as that of a deferred constant declaration in the
corresponding package declaration. A full type declaration is a type
declaration corresponding to an incomplete type declaration. (2.6)

[Example E.11]

B.104 fully bound: A binding indication for the component instance implies
an entity interface and an architecture. (5.2.1.1)

B.105 generate parameter: A constant object whose type is the base type of
the discrete range of a generate parameter specification. A generate
parameter is declared by a generate statement. (9.7)

B.106 generic: An interface constant declared in the block header of a block
statement, a component declaration, or an entity declaration. Generics
provide a channel for static information to be communicated to a block from
its environment. Unlike constants, however, the value of a generic can be
supplied externally, either in a component instantiation statement or in a
configuration specification. (1.1.1.1)

B.107 generic interface list: A list that defines local or formal generic
constants. (1.1.1.1, 4.3.2.1)

B.108 globally static expression: An expression that can be evaluated as
soon as the design hierarchy in which it appears is elaborated. A locally
static expression is also globally static unless the expression appears in a
dynamically elaborated context. (7.4)

B.109 globally static primary: A primary whose value can be determined
during the elaboration of its complete context and that does not thereafter
change. Globally static primaries can only appear within statically
elaborated contexts. (7.4.2)

B.110 group: A named collection of name entities. Groups relate different
name entities for the purposes not specified by the language. In particular,
groups may be decorated with attributes. (4.6, 4.7)

B.111 guard: See guard expression.

B.112 guard expression: A Boolean-valued expression associated with a block
statement that controls assignments to guarded signals within the block. A
guard expression defines an implicit signal GUARD that may be used to
control the operation of certain statements within the block. (4.3.1.2,
9.1, 9.5)

B.113 guarded assignment: A concurrent signal assignment statement that
includes the option guarded, which specifies that the signal assignment
statement is executed when a signal GUARD changes from FALSE to TRUE, or
when that signal has been TRUE and an event occurs on one of the signals
referenced in the corresponding GUARD expression. The signal GUARD may be
one of the implicitly declared GUARD signals associated with block
statements that have guard expressions, or it may be an explicitly declared
signal of type Boolean that is visible at the point of the concurrent signal
assignment statement. (9.5)

B.114 guarded signal: A signal declared as a register or a bus. Such signals
have special semantics when their drivers are updated from within guarded
signal assignment statements. (4.3.1.2)

B.115 guarded target: A signal assignment target consisting only of guarded
signals. An unguarded target is a target consisting only of unguarded
signals. (9.5)

B.116 hidden: A declaration that is not directly visible. A declaration may
be hidden in its scope by a homograph of the declaration. (10.3)

B.117 homograph: A reflexive property of two declarations. Each of two
declarations is said to be a homograph of the other if both declarations
have the same identifier and overloading is allowed for at most one of the
two. If overloading is allowed for both declarations, then each of the two
is a homograph of the other if they have the same identifier, operator
symbol, or character literal, as well as the same parameter and result type
profile. (1.3.1, 10.3)

B.118 identify: A property of a name appearing in an element association of
an assignment target in the form of an aggregate. The name is said to
identify a signal or variable and any subelements of that signal or
variable. (8.4, 8.5)

B.119 immediate scope: A property of a declaration with respect to the
declarative region within which the declaration immediately occurs. The
immediate scope of the declaration extends from the beginning of the
declaration to the end of the declarative region. (10.2)

B.120 immediately within: A property of a declaration with respect to some
declarative region. A declaration is said to occur immediately within a
declarative region if this region is the innermost region that encloses the
declaration, not counting the declarative region (if any) associated with
the declaration itself. (10.1)

B.121 implicit signal: Any signal S'Stable(T), S'Quiet(T), S'Delayed, or
S'Transaction, or any implicit GUARD signal. A member of an implicit signal
is also an implicit signal. (12.6.2,12.6.3, 12.6.4)

B.122 implicitly declared object: An object whose declaration is not
explicit in the source description, but is a consequence of other
constructs; for example, signal GUARD. (4.3, 9.1, 14.1) See also
explicitly declared object.

B.123 imply: A property of a binding indication in a configuration
specification with respect to the design entity indicated by the binding
specification. The binding indication is said to imply the design entity;
the design entity may be indicated directly, indirectly, or by default.
(5.2.1.1)

B.124 impure function: A function that may return a different value each
time it is called, even when different calls have the same actual parameter
values. A pure function returns the same value each time it is called using
the same values as actual parameters. A impure function can update objects
outside of its scope and can access a broader class of values than a pure
function. (2)

B.125 incomplete type declaration: A type declaration that is used to
{define} mutually dependent and recursive access types. (3.3.1)

[Example E.12]

B.126 index constraint: A constraint that determines the index range for
every index of an array type, and thereby the bounds of the array. An index
constraint is compatible with an array type if and only if the constraint
defined by each discrete range in the index constraint is compatible with
the corresponding index subtype in the array type. An array value satisfies
an index constraint if the array value and the index constraint have the
same index range at each index position . (3.1, 3.2.1.1)

B.127 index range: A multidimensional array has a distinct element for each
possible sequence of index values that can be formed by selecting one value
for each index (in the given order). The possible values for a given index
are all the values that belong to the corresponding range. This range of
values is called the index range. (3.2.1)

B.128 index subtype: For a given index position of an array, the index
subtype is denoted by the type mark of the corresponding index subtype
definition. (3.2.1)

B.129 inertial delay: A delay model used for switching circuits; a pulse
whose duration is shorter than the switching time of the circuit will not be
transmitted. Inertial delay is the default delay mode for signal assignment
statements. (8.4) See also transport delay.

[Example E.15]

B.130 initial value expression: An expression that specifies the initial
value to be assigned to a variable. (4.3.1.3)

B.131 inputs: The signals identified by the longest static prefix of each
signal name appearing as a primary in each expression (other than time
expressions) within a concurrent signal assignment statement. (9.5)

B.132 instance: A subcomponent of a design entity whose prototype is a
component declaration, design entity, or configuration declaration. Each
instance of a component may have different actuals associated with its local
ports and generics. A component instantiation statement whose instantiated
unit denotes a component creates an instance of the corresponding component.
A component instantiation statement whose instantiated unit denotes either a
design entity or a configuration declaration creates an instance of the
denoted design entity. (9.6, 9.6.1, 9.6.2)

B.133 integer literal: An abstract literal of the type universal_integer
that does not contain a base point. (13.4)

B.134 integer type: A discrete scalar type whose values represent integer
numbers within a specified range. (3.1, 3.1.2)

[Example E.14]

B.135 interface list: A list that declares the interface objects required by
a subprogram, component, design entity, or block statement. (4.3.2.1)

B.136 internal block: A nested block in a design unit, as defined by a block
statement. (1)

[Example E.8]

B.137 ISO: The International Organization for Standardization.

B.138 ISO 8859-1: The ISO Latin-l character set. Package Standard contains
the definition of type Character, which represents the ISO Latin-l character
set. (3.1.1, 14.2)

B.139 kernel process: A conceptual representation of the agent that
coordinates the activity of user-defined processes during a simulation. The
kernel process causes the execution of I/O operations, the propagation of
signal values, and the updating of values of implicit signals [such as
S'Stable(T)]; in addition, it detects events that occur and causes the
appropriate processes to execute in response to those events. (12.6)

B.140 left of: When both a value V1 and a value V2 belong to a range and
either the range is an ascending range and V2 is the successor of V1, or the
range is a descending range and V2 is the predecessor of V1. (3.1)

B.141 left-to-right order: When each value in a list of values is to the
left of the next value in the list within that range, except for the last
value in the list. (3.1)

B.142 library: See design library.

B.143 library unit: The representation in a design library of an analyzed
design unit. (11.1)

B.144 literal: A value that is directly specified in the description of a
design. A literal can be a bit string literal, enumeration literal, numeric
literal, string literal, or the literal null. (7.3.1)

B.145 local generic: An interface object declared in a component declaration
that serves to connect a formal generic in the interface list of an entity
and an actual generic or value in the design unit instantiating that entity.
(4.3, 4.3.2.2, 4.5)

B.146 local port: A signal declared in the interface list of a component
declaration that serves to connect a formal port in the interface list of an
entity and an actual port or signal in the design unit instantiating that
entity. (4.3, 4.3.2.2, 4.5)

B.147 locally static expression: An expression that can be evaluated during
the analysis of the design unit in which it appears. (7.4, 7.4.1)

B.148 locally static name: A name in which every expression is locally
static (if every discrete range that appears as part of the name denotes a
locally static range or subtype and if no prefix within the name is either
an object or value of an access type or a function call). (6.1)

B.149 locally static primary: One of a certain group of primaries that
includes literals, certain constants, and certain attributes. (7.4)

B.150 locally static subtype: A subtype whose bounds and direction can be
determined during the analysis of the design unit in which it appears.
(7.4.1)

B.151 longest static prefix: The name of a signal or a variable name, if the
name is a static signal or variable name. Otherwise, the longest static
prefix is the longest prefix of the name that is a static signal or variable
name. (6.1) See also static signal name.

B.152 loop parameter: A constant, implicitly declared by the for clause of a
loop statement, used to count the number of iterations of a loop. (8.9)

B.153 lower bound: For a nonnull range L to R or L downto R, the smaller of
L and R. (3.1)

B.154 match: A property of a signature with respect to the parameter and
subtype profile of a subprogram or enumeration literal. The signature is
said to match the parameter and result type profile if certain conditions
are true. (2.3.2)

B.155 matching elements: Corresponding elements of two composite type values
that are used for certain logical and relational operations. (7.2.3)

B.156 member: A slice of an object, a subelement, or an object; or a slice
of a subelement of an object. (3)

B.157 mode: The direction of information flow through the port or parameter.
Modes are in, out, inout, buffer, or linkage. (4.3.2)

B.158 model: The result of the elaboration of a design hierarchy. The model
can be executed in order to simulate the design it represents. (12, 12.6)

B.159 name: A property of an identifier with respect to some named entity.
Each form of declaration associates an identifier with a named entity. In
certain places within the scope of a declaration, it is valid to use the
identifier to refer to the associated named entity; these places are defined
by the visibility rules. At such places, the identifier is said to be the
name of the named entity. (4, 6.1)

B.160 named association: An association element in which the formal
designator appears explicitly. (4.3.2.2, 7.3.2)

B.161 named entity: An item associated with an identifier, character
literal, or operator symbol as the result of an explicit or implicit
declaration. (4) See also name.

B.162 net: A collection of drivers, signals (including ports and implicit
signals), conversion functions, and resolution functions that connect
different processes. Initialization of a net occurs after elaboration, and a
net is updated during each simulation cycle. (12, 12.1, 12.6.2)

B.163 nonobject alias: An alias whose designator denotes some named entity
other than an object. (4.3.3, 4.3.3.2) See also object alias.

B.164 nonpostponed process: An explicit or implicit process whose source
statement does not contain the reserved word postponed. When a nonpostponed
process is resumed, it executes in the current simulation cycle. Thus,
nonpostponed processes have access to the current values of signals, whether
or not those values are stable at the current model time. (9.2)

B.165 null array: Any of the discrete ranges in the index constraint of an
array that define a null range. (3.2.1.1)

B.166 null range: A range that specifies an empty subset of values. A range
L to R is a null range if L > R, and range L downto R is a null range if L <
R. (3.1)

B.167 null slice: A slice whose discrete range is a null range. (6.5)

B.168 null waveform element: A waveform element that is used to turn off a
driver of a guarded signal. (8.4.1)

B.169 null transaction: A transaction produced by evaluating a null waveform
element. (8.4.1)

B.170 numeric literal: An abstract literal, or a literal of a physical type.
(7.3.1)

B.171 numeric type: An integer type, a floating point type, or a physical
type. (3.1)

B.172 object: A named entity that has a value of a given type. An object can
be a constant, signal, variable, or file. (4.3.3)

B.173 object alias: An alias whose alias designator denotes an object (that
is, a constant, signal, variable, or file). (4.3.3, 4.3.3.1) See also
nonobject alias.

B.174 overloaded: Identifiers or enumeration literals that denote two
different name entities. Enumeration literals, subprograms, and predefined
operators may be overloaded. At any place where an overloaded enumeration
literal occurs in the text of a program, the type of the enumeration literal
must be determinable from the context. (2.1, 2.3, 2.3.1, 2.3.2, 3.1.1)

B.175 parameter: A constant, signal, variable, or file declared in the
interface list of a subprogram specification. The characteristics of the
class of objects to which a given parameter belongs are also characteristics
of the parameter. In addition, a parameter has an associated mode that
specifies the direction of data flow allowed through the parameter. (2.1.1,
2.1.1.1, 2.1.1.2, 2.1.1.3, 2.3, 2.6)

B.176 parameter interface list: An interface list that declares the
parameters for a subprogram. It may contain interface constant declarations,
interface signal declarations, interface variable declarations, interface
file declarations, or any combination thereof. (4.3.2.1)

B.177 parameter type profile: Two formal parameter lists that have the same
number of parameters, and at each parameter position the corresponding
parameters have the same base type. (2.3)

B.178 parameter and result type profile: Two subprograms that have the same
parameter type profile, and either both are functions with the same result
base type, or neither of the two is a function. (2.3)

B.179 parent: A process or a subprogram that contains a procedure call
statement for a given procedure or for a parent of the given procedure.
(2.2)

B.180 passive process: A process statement where neither the process itself,
nor any procedure of which the process is a parent, contains a signal
assignment statement. (9.2)

B.181 physical literal: A numeric literal of a physical type. (3.1.3)

B.182 physical type: A numeric scalar type that is used to represent
measurements of some quantity. Each value of a physical type has a position
number that is an integer value. Any value of a physical type is an integral
multiple of the primary unit of measurement for that type. (3.1, 3.1.3)

B.183 port: A channel for dynamic communication between a block and its
environment. A signal declared in the interface list of an entity
declaration, in the header of a block statement, or in the interface list of
a component declaration. In addition to the characteristics of signals,
ports also have an associated mode; the mode constrains the directions of
data flow allowed through the port. (1.1.1.2, 4.3.1.2)

B.184 port interface list: An interface list that declares the inputs and
outputs of a block, component, or design entity. It consists entirely of
interface signal declarations. (1.1.1, 1.1.1.2, 4.3.2.1, 4.3.2.2, 9.1)

B.185 positional association: An association element that does not contain
an explicit appearance of the formal designator. An actual designator at a
given position in an association list corresponds to the interface element
at the same position in the interface list. (4.3.2.2, 7.3.2)

B.186 postponed process: An explicit or implicit process whose source
statement contains the reserved word postponed. When a postponed process is
resumed, it does not execute until the final simulation cycle at the current
modeled time. Thus, a postponed process accesses the values of signals that
are the "stable" values at the current simulated time. (9.2)

B.187 predefined operators: Implicitly defined operators that operate on the
predefined types. Every predefined operator is a pure function. No
predefined operators have named formal parameters; therefore, named
association may not be used when invoking a predefined operation. (7.2,
14.2)

B.188 primary: One of the elements making up an expression. Each primary has
a value and a type. (7.1)

B.189 projected output waveform: A sequence of one or more transactions
representing the current and projected future values of the driver.
(12.6.1)

B.190 pulse rejection limit: The threshold time limit for which a signal
value whose duration is greater than the limit will be propagated. A pulse
rejection limit is specified by the reserved word reject in an inertially
delayed signal assignment statement. (8.4)

B.191 pure function: A function that returns the same value each time it is
called with the same values as actual parameters. An impure function may
return a different value each time it is called, even when different calls
have the same actual parameter values. (2.1)

B.192 quiet: In a given simulation cycle, a signal that is not active.
(12.6.2)

B.193 range: A specified subset of values of a scalar type. (3.1) See also
ascending range, belong (to a range), descending range, lower bound, and
upper bound.

B.194 range constraint: A construct that specifies the range of values in a
type. A range constraint is compatible with a subtype if each bound of the
range belong to a subtype or if the range constraint defines a null range.
The direction of a range constraint is the same as the direction of its
range. (3.1, 3.1.2, 3.1.3, 3.1.4)

B.195 read: The value of an object is said to be read when its value is
referenced or when certain of its attributes are referenced. (4.3.2)

B.196 real literal: An abstract literal of the type universal_real that
contains a base point. (13.4)

B.197 record type: A composite type whose values consist of named elements.
(3.2.2, 7.3.2.1)

B.198 reference: Access to a named entity. Every appearance of a designator
(a name, character literal, or operator symbol) is a reference to the named
entity denoted by the designator, unless the designator appears in a library
clause or use clause. (10.4, 11.2)

B.199 register: A kind of guarded signal that retains its last driven value
when all of its drivers are turned off. (4.3.1.2)

B.200 regular structure: Instances of one or more components arranged and
interconnected (via signals) in a repetitive way. Each instance may have
characteristics that depend upon its position within the group of instances.
Regular structures may be represented through the use of the generate
statement. (9.7)

B.201 resolution: The process of determining the resolved value of a
resolved signal based on the values of multiple sources for that signal.
(2.4, 4.3.1.2)

B.202 resolution function: A user-defined function that computes the
resolved value of a resolved signal. (2.4, 4.3.1.2)

B.203 resolution limit: The primary unit of type TIME (by default, 1
femtosecond). Any TIME value whose absolute value is smaller than this limit
is truncated to zero (0) time units. (3.1.3.1)

B.204 resolved signal: A signal that has an associated resolution function.
(4.3.1.2)

B.205 resolved value: The output of the resolution function associated with
the resolved signal, which is determined as a function of the collection of
inputs from the multiple sources of the signal. (2.4, 4.3.1.2)

B.206 resource library: A library containing library units that are
referenced within the design unit being analyzed. (11.2)

B.207 result subtype: The subtype of the returned value of a function.
(2.1)

B.208 resume: The action of a wait statement upon an enclosing process when
the conditions on which the wait statement is waiting are satisfied. If the
enclosing process is a nonpostponed process, the process will subsequently
execute during the current simulation cycle. Otherwise, the process is a
postponed process, which will execute during the final simulation cycle at
the current simulated time. (12.6.3)

B.209 right of: When a value V1 and a value V2 belong to a range and either
the range is an ascending range and V2 is the predecessor of V1, or the
range is a descending range and V2 is the successor of V1. (14.1)

B.210 satisfy: A property of a value with respect to some constraint. The
value is said to satisfy a constraint if the value is in the subset of
values determined by the constraint. (3, 3.2.1.1)

B.211 scalar type: A type whose values have no elements. Scalar types
consist of enumeration types, integer types, physical types, and floating
point types. Enumeration types and integer types are called discrete types.
Integer types, floating point types, and physical types are called numeric
types. All scalar types are ordered; that is, all relational operators are
predefined for their values. (3, 3.1)

B.212 scope: A portion of the text in which a declaration may be visible.
This portion is defined by visibility and overloading rules. (10.2)

B.213 selected name: Syntactically, a name having a prefix and suffix
separated by a dot. Certain selected names are used to denote record
elements or objects denoted by an access value. The remaining selected names
are referred to as expanded names. (6.3, 8.1) Also see expanded name.

B.214 sensitivity set: The set of signals to which a wait statement is
sensitive. The sensitivity set is given explicitly in an on clause, or is
implied by an until clause. (8.1)

B.215 sequential statements: Statements that execute in sequence in the
order in which they appear. Sequential statements are used for algorithmic
descriptions. (

B.216 short-circuit operation: An operation for which the right operand is
evaluated only if the left operand has a certain value. The short-circuit
operations are the predefined logical operations and, or, nand, and nor for
operands of types BIT and BOOLEAN. (7.2)

B.217 signal: An object with a past history of values. A signal may have
multiple drivers, each with a current value and projected future values. The
term signal refers to objects declared by signal declarations or port
declarations. (4.3.1.2)

B.218 signal transform: A sequential statement within a statement transform
that determines which one of the alternative waveforms, if any, is to be
assigned to an output signal. A signal transform can be a sequential signal
assignment statement, an if statement, a case statement, or a null
statement. (9.5)

B.219 simple name: The identifier associated with a named entity, either in
its own declaration or in an alias declaration. (6.2)

B.220 simulation cycle: One iteration in the repetitive execution of the
processes defined by process statements in a model. The first simulation
cycle occurs after initialization. A simulation cycle can be a delta cycle
or a time-advance cycle. (12.6.4)

B.221 single-object declaration: An object declaration whose identifier list
contains a single identifier; it is called a multiple-object declaration if
the identifier list contains two or more identifiers. (4.3.1)

B.222 slice: A one-dimensional array of a sequence of consecutive elements
of another one-dimensional array. (6.5)

B.223 source: A contributor to the value of a signal. A source can be a
driver or port of a block with which a signal is associated or a composite
collection of sources. (4.3.1.2)

B.224 specification: A class of construct that associates additional
information with a named entity. There are three kinds of attribute
specifications, configuration specifications, and disconnection
specifications. (5)

B.225 statement transform: The first sequential statement in the process
equivalent to the concurrent signal assignment statement. The statement
transform defines the actions of the concurrent signal assignment statement
when it executes. The statement transform is followed by a wait statement,
which is the final statement in the equivalent process. (9.5)

B.226 static: See locally static and globally static.

B.227 static name: A name in which every expression that appears as part of
the name (for example, as an index expression) is a static expression (if
every discrete range that appears as part of the name denotes a static range
or subtype and if no prefix within the name is either an object or value of
an access type or a function call). (6.1)

B.228 static range: A range whose bounds are static expressions. (7.4)

B.229 static signal name: A static name that denotes a signal. (6.1)

B.230 static variable name: A static name that denotes a variable. (6.1)

B.231 string literal: A sequence of graphic characters, or possibly none,
enclosed between two quotation marks ("). The type of a string literal is
determined from the context. (7.3.1, 13.6)

B.232 subaggregate: An aggregate appearing as the expression in an element
association within another, multidimensional array aggregate. The
subaggregate is an (n-1)-dimensional array aggregate, where n is the
dimensionality of the outer aggregate. Aggregates of multidimensional arrays
are expressed in row-major (rightmost index varies fastest) order.
(7.3.2.2)

B.233 subelement: An element of another element. Where other subelements are
excluded, the term element is used.(3)

B.234 subprogram specification: Specifies the designator of the subprogram,
any formal parameters of the subprogram, and the result type for a function
subprogram. (2.1)

B.235 subtype: A type together with a constraint. A value belongs to a
subtype of a given type if it belongs to the type and satisfies the
constraint; the given type is called the base type of the subtype. A type is
a subtype of itself. Such a subtype is said to be unconstrained because it
corresponds to a condition that imposes no restriction. (3)

B.236 suspend: A process that stops executing and waits for an event or for
a time period to elapse. (12.6.4)

B.237 timeout interval: The maximum time a process will be suspended, as
specified by the timeout period in the until clause of a wait statement.
(8.1)

B.238 to the left of: See left of.

B.239 to the right of: See right of.

B.240 transaction: A pair consisting of a value and a time. The value
represents a (current or) future value of the driver; the time represents
the relative delay before the value becomes the current value. (12.6.1)

B.241 transport delay: An optional delay model for signal assignment.
Transport delay is characteristic of hardware devices (such as transmission
lines) that exhibit nearly infinite frequency response: any pulse is
transmitted, no matter how short its duration. (8.4) See also inertial
delay.

[Example E.16]

B.242 type: A set of values and a set of operations. (3)

B.243 type conversion: An expression that converts the value of a
subexpression from one type to the designated type of the type conversion.
Associations in the form of a type conversion are also allowed. These
associations have functions and restrictions similar to conversion functions
but can be used in places where conversion functions cannot. In both cases
(expressions and associations), the converted type must be closely related
to the designated type. (4.3.2.2, 7.3.5) See also conversion function and
closely related types.

B.244 unaffected: A waveform in a concurrent signal assignment statement
that does not affect the driver of the target. (8.4, 9.5.1)

B.245 unassociated formal: A formal that is not associated with an actual.
(5.2.1.2)

B.246 unconstrained subtype: A subtype that corresponds to a condition that
imposes no restriction. (3, 4.2)

B.247 unit name: A name defined by a unit declaration (either the primary
unit declaration or a secondary unit declaration) in a physical type
declaration. (3.1.3)

B.248 universal_integer: An anonymous predefined integer type that is used
for all integer literals. The position number of an integer value is the
corresponding value of the type universal_integer. (3.1.2, 7.3.1, 7.3.5)

B.249 universal_real: An anonymous predefined type that is used for literals
of floating point types. Other floating point types have no literals.
However, for each floating point type there exists an implicit conversion
that converts a value of type universal_real into the corresponding value
(if any) of the floating point type. (3.1.4, 7.3.1, 7.3.5)

B.250 update: An action on the value of a signal, variable, or file. The
value of a signal is said to be updated when the signal appears as the
target (or a component of the target) of a signal assignment statement,
(indirectly) when it is associated with an interface object of mode out,
buffer, inout, or linkage, or when one of its subelements (individually or
as part of a slice) is updated. The value of a signal is also said to be
updated when it is subelement or slice of a resolved signal, and the
resolved signal is updated. The value of a variable is said to be updated
when the variable appears as the target (or a component of the target) of a
variable assignment statement, (indirectly) when it is associated with an
interface object of mode out or linkage, or when one of its subelements
(individually or part of a slice) is updated. The value of a file is said to
be updated when a WRITE operation is performed on the file object. (4.3.2)

B.251 upper bound: For a nonnull range L to R or L downto R, the larger of L
and R. (3.1)

B.252 variable: An object with a single current value. (4.3.1.3)

B.253 visible: When the declaration of an identifier defines a possible
meaning of an occurrence of the identifier used in the declaration. A
visible declaration is visible by selection (for example, by using an
expanded name) or directly visible (for example, by using a simple name).
(10.3)

B.254 waveform: A series of transactions, each of which represents a future
value of the driver of a signal. The transactions in a waveform are ordered
with respect to time, so that one transaction appears before another if the
first represents a value that will occur sooner than the value represented
by the other. (8.4)

B.255 whitespace character: A space, a nonbreaking space, or a horizontal
tabulation character (SP, NBSP, or HT). (14.3)

B.256 working library: A design library into which the library unit
resulting from the analysis of a design unit is placed. (11.2)

End of document.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Examples

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
E.1 access types:

PROCESS ...
TYPE twobits IS ARRAY (0 TO 1) OF BIT;
TYPE twobits_pointer_type IS ACCESS twobits; -- declare an ACCESS type.
-- The subprograms NEW and DEALLOCATE are declared implicitly
VARIABLE p1, p2 : twobits_pointer_type; -- declare two pointer variables
...
BEGIN
...
p1 := NEW twobits; -- allocate memory for an object of type "twobits"
p1.ALL := ('0','1'); -- store a value to the memory location
p1.ALL(0) := p1.ALL(1); -- referencing subelements of an array pointed by
-- an access value
p1(0) := p1(1); -- same as "p1.ALL(0) := p1.ALL(1)"
p2 := p1; -- "p2" and "p1" are now pointing to the same memory location
DEALLOCATE(p2); -- free memory
p1 := NULL; -- "p1" now points to nil
END PROCESS;

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
E.2 array and record aggregates:

SIGNAL bvec : BIT_VECTOR(0 TO 3);
SIGNAL one_bit : BIT_VECTOR(0 TO 0);

SIGNAL b1, b2, b3, b4 : BIT;

TYPE rec IS RECORD
a : BIT;
b : INTEGER;
END RECORD;
SIGNAL rvec : rec;
....
-- examples for array aggregates
bvec <= (1=>'1', OTHERS=>'0'); -- assigns ('0','1','0','0') to "bvec" (named
-- association)
bvec <= ('0','1','0','0'); -- positional association
(b1,b2,b3,b4) <= bvec AFTER 20 ns; -- "b1" will be assigned "bvec(0)",
-- "b2" "bvec(1)", ...
one_bit <= (0=>'1'); -- named association has to be used to create an
-- aggregat containing only a single element

-- examples for record aggregates
rec <= ('0', -9); -- "rec.a" = '0', "rec.b" = -9 (positional association)
rec <= (b=>123, a=>'1'); -- "rec.a" = '1', "rec.b" = 123 (named association)

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
E.3 array and record types:

-- constrained arrays
TYPE word IS ARRAY (31 DOWNTO 0) OF BIT;
TYPE memory IS ARRAY (0 TO 100, 0 TO 7) OF BIT; -- two dimensional array

-- unconstrained arrays

TYPE r_vector IS ARRAY (POSITIVE RANGE < >) OF REAL;
TYPE i_vector IS ARRAY (NATURAL RANGE < >) OF INTEGER; -- POSITIVE and NATURAL
-- are predefined integer subtypes ranging 1 to INTEGER'HIGH,
-- respectively 0 to INTEGER'HIGH
....

-- declaring array objects
VARIABLE bus : word := (OTHERS => '0'); -- default value of bus
-- is ('0','0',...'0')
VARIABLE mem : memory := (OTHERS => (OTHERS => '1')); -- default value of mem
-- is (('1',...'1'),...,('1',...'1'))
VARIABLE a : r_vector(1 TO 3) := (1.0, 2.4, 3.4); -- "a" has 3 elements
VARIABLE b : i_vector(0 TO 1); -- "b" has two elements
....

-- accessing array elements
bus(3) := mem(2,3);

-- record types
TYPE rec IS RECORD -- record type "rec" contains 4 elements "a" to "d"
a : BIT;
b : INTEGER;
c : REAL;
d : bit_vector(0 TO 2);
END RECORD;

-- declaring record objects
VARIABLE rec_var : rec := ('0', 34, -123.4, (OTHERS => '0')); -- "a" = '0',
-- "b" = 34, "c" = -123.4 and "d" = ('0','0','0')

-- accessing record objects
rec_var := (a=>'1', d=>('0','1','0'), b=>-1, c=>12.45);
rec_var.a := '0'; -- accessing element "a" of record "rec_var"
rec_var.b := 111; -- accessing element "b" of record "rec_var"

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
E.4 assertion statement:

VARIABLE a,b : INTEGER;
....
a:= 10;
b:= 11;

-- the assertion statement will report a message only if the condition
-- expression evaluates to FALSE

ASSERT a /= b -- assert statement will report nothing because
REPORT "a not equal b" -- a /= b evaluates to TRUE
SEVERITY WARNING;

ASSERT a = b -- assert statement will report the WARNING
REPORT "a not equal b" -- message "a not equal b"
SEVERITY WARNING;

ASSERT a = b
REPORT "a not equal b"; -- will report the ERROR message "a not equal b"

ASSERT a = b; -- will report the ERROR message
-- "Assertion violation"

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
E.5 attributes:

TYPE int_up IS INTEGER 0 TO 100;
TYPE int_down IS INTEGER 99 TO -1;

TYPE vec IS ARRAY (3 DOWNTO -1) OF INTEGER;
TYPE vec2d IS ARRAY (0 TO 3, 5 DOWNTO 1) OF BIT;
VARIABLE bus : vec;

-- examples for some predefined attributes

a := int_up'LEFT; -- a = 0
a := int_up'LOW; -- a = 0
a := int_up'HIGH; -- a = 100
a := int_down'LEFT; -- a = 99
a := int_down'HIGH; -- a = 99

a := vec'LEFT; -- a = 3; note: "vec" is an array type
a := bus'RIGHT; -- a = -1; note: "bus" is an array object
a := bus'LOW; -- a = -1
a := vec2d'LENGTH(1); -- a = 4, size of the first dimension of "vec2d"
a := vec2d'HIGH(2); -- a = 5

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
E.6 base type:

TYPE vec IS ARRAY (3 DOWNTO -1) OF INTEGER; -- the base type of type
-- "vec" is "vec"
SUBTYPE memory IS bit_vector(1 TO 100); -- the base type of "memory" is
-- "bit_vector"
SUBTYPE pin_count IS INTEGER 1 TO 20; -- the base type of "pin_count"
-- is "INTEGER"

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
E.7 bit strings:

B"0110_1001"; -- (binary), length is 8, equivalent to
-- ('0','1','1','0','1','0','0','1')
B"0110100110"; -- (binary), length is 10, equivalent to
-- B"01_1010_0110"
X"65"; -- (hexadecimal), length is 8, equivalent to
-- B"0110_0101"
O"126"; -- (octal), length is 9, equivalent to
-- B"001_010_110"

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
E.8 internal block:

ARCHITECTURE block_struct OF test IS
SIGNAL clock : BIT := '0';
SIGNAL count : INTEGER := -1;
...
BEGIN
alu: BLOCK
PORT (clk IN BIT; counter : INOUT INTEGER); -- interface of block alu
PORT MAP(clk => clock, counter => count); -- port map association list
... -- declarations for "alu"
BEGIN
counter <= counter + 1;
...
END BLOCK alu;
...
END block_struct;

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
E.9 concurrent statements:

ARCHITECTURE concurrent OF test IS
SIGNAL sig, data, dum : BIT;
PROCEDURE test_proc (val1 : IN BIT; pdata : IN BIT) IS
BEGIN
...
END test_proc;
BEGIN
-- concurrent signal assignment
alab1: -- label
sig <= '1' AFTER 10 ns, '0' AFTER 15 ns; -- INERTIAL delay
data <= TRANSPORT '1' AFTER 20 ns; -- TRANSPORT delay

data <= REJECT 5 ns INERTIAL '1' AFTER 10 ns, '0' AFTER 15 ns; -- same as
-- INERTIAL delay, but only spikes with a pulse width less
-- than 5 ns are deleted. NOTE: you must have a VHDL'93
-- compliant compiler/simulator to use "REJECT"

-- conditional signal assignment
dum <= '1' AFTER 10 ns, '0' AFTER 15 ns WHEN data_i = 100 ELSE
'1' AFTER 20 ns WHEN data_i = 100 AND data_i = 99 AND sig = '0' ELSE
'0' AFTER 100 ns;

-- selected signal assignment
WITH data_i SELECT
'1' AFTER 10 ns, '0' AFTER 15 ns WHEN 1 | 10 , -- assign waveform if
-- "data_i" = 1 or "data_i" = 10
'1' AFTER 20 ns WHEN 100,
'0' AFTER 2 ns WHEN OTHERS; -- default assignment

-- process statement
pname1: PROCESS
VARIABLE count : INTEGER := 0;
BEGIN
COUNT := COUNT + 1;
...
WAIT ON data;
END PROCESS;

-- concurrent assertion statement
ASSERT dum = '1'
REPORT "signal dum is '0'"
SEVERITY WARNING;

-- concurrent procedure call
test_proc (val1=>sig, pdata=>data);

END concurrent;

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
E.10 default expression:

ENTITY test IS
GENERIC (def_val : BIT := '1'); -- default value of "def_val" is '1'
PORT (clk : IN BIT := '0'; data : INOUT BIT := def_val); -- default value
-- of "clk" is '0', the default value of "data" is "def_val".
-- Note, "def_val" is declared in the generic clause above!
END test;

ARCHITECTURE block_struct OF test IS
SIGNAL clock, reset_pin : BIT := '0';
SIGNAL count : INTEGER := -1;
SIGNAL bus : bit_vector(0 TO 7) := (4=>'1', OTHERS=>'0'); -- default value
-- of "bus" is B"0000_1000"
...
BEGIN
...
END block_struct;

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
E.11 deferred constant:

PACKAGE pack IS
CONSTANT c_normal : INTEGER := 100; -- normal constant
CONSTANT c_deffered : INTEGER; -- deferred constant
END pack;

PACKAGE BODY pack IS
CONSTANT c_deffered : INTEGER := -99; -- full declaration of constant
-- "c_deffered"
END pack;

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
E.12 incomplete type declaration:

-- example of a recursive type
TYPE mytype; -- incomplete type declaration
TYPE link_mytpe IS ACCESS mytype; -- define an access type for "mytype"

TYPE mytpye IS RECORD
next : link_mytype;
data : INTEGER;
END RECORD;

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
E.13 enumeration type:

TYPE colour IS (red, yellow, green);
TYPE four_state IS ('0', 'L', 'Z' 'X');

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
E.14 integer type:

TYPE state IS RANGE 0 TO 32;
TYPE bit_index IS RANGE 31 DOWNTO 0;

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
E.15 inertial delay:

SIGNAL data : INTEGER;

-- assume the actual projected output waveform of signal "data" is
-- (4, 8 ns) (12, 10 ns) (-1, 15 ns) (12, 18 ns) (100, 25 ns),
-- | |
-- | time
-- value
-- then the driver list after executing

data <= 12 AFTER 11 ns, 100 AFTER 15 ns;

-- at simulation time 3 ns evaluates to
-- (12, 10 ns) (12, 14 ns = 3 ns + 11 ns) (100, 18 ns)

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
E.16 transport delay:

SIGNAL data : INTEGER;

-- assume the actual projected output waveform of signal "data" is
-- (4, 8 ns) (12, 10 ns) (-1, 15 ns) (12, 18 ns) (100, 25 ns),
-- | |
-- | time
-- value
-- then the driver list after executing

data <= TRANSPORT 12 AFTER 11 ns, 100 AFTER 15 ns;

-- at simulation time 3 ns evaluates to
-- (4, 8 ns) (12, 10 ns) (12, 14 ns = 3 ns + 11 ns) (100, 18 ns)

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
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