Template function specialization
Hi,
Stroustrup has shown a following sample of the template function specialization in his book "The C++ Programming Language": template<class T> class Vector { /*...*/ void swap(Vector&); /*...*/ } template<class T> void swap(T&x, T& y) { T t = x; x = y; y = t; } Here he has stated that: code which is quoted above will work but will be ineffective if executed for a vector of vectors. A reason is that function swap() replaces one vectorwith other by copying elements. An object whose type is Vector has enough data to give an indirect access to elements. So it is possible to make a new design of definition such that representations will be swapped. To make it possible to deal with the representation, in class Vector there is a method swap: template<class T> void Vector<T>::swap(Vector& a) { swap(v, a.v); swap(size, a.size); } Then he has said that: It is possible to use a method swap to define a specialization of general swap() function. template<class T> void swap(Vector<T>& a, Vector<T>& b) { a.swap(b); } I am sure I am missing something but I can't see how above code make it possible to achieve a better efficiency when swap() will be called for a vector of vectors. The last piece of code makes that if swap will be executed for parameters which are both Vectors then a special version of that method will be called (a.swap(b)  that is method which is defined in Vector). But when we look how Vector<T>::Swap is defined, we can see that it simply calls that versionof swap which was defined in the general template. Where is a gap in the above reasoning? Thanks in advance for responses, Greetings. 
Re: Template function specialization
On 7/31/2012 8:38 AM, davidkevin@o2.pl wrote:
> Stroustrup has shown a following sample of the template function > specialization in his book "The C++ Programming Language": > > template<class T> class Vector { > /*...*/ > void swap(Vector&); > /*...*/ > } > > template<class T> void swap(T&x, T& y) > { > T t = x; > x = y; > y = t; > } > > Here he has stated that: > code which is quoted above will work but will be ineffective if > executed for a vector of vectors. A reason is that function swap() > replaces one vector with other by copying elements. An object whose type > is Vector has enough data to give an indirect access to elements. So it > is possible to make a new design of definition such that representations > will be swapped. To make it possible to deal with the representation, in > class Vector there is a method swap: > > template<class T> void Vector<T>::swap(Vector& a) > { > swap(v, a.v); > swap(size, a.size); > } > > Then he has said that: > It is possible to use a method swap to define a specialization of general swap() function. > > template<class T> void swap(Vector<T>& a, Vector<T>& b) > { > a.swap(b); > } > > I am sure I am missing something but I can't see how above code make > it possible to achieve a better efficiency when swap() will be called > for a vector of vectors. It doesn't matter what the vector *of*. If v1 and v2 are both Vector<U> for some given U type, then swap(v1, v2) will invoke the specialized version of the 'swap' instead of the general one that uses a temporary variable. > The last piece of code makes that if swap will be executed for > parameters which are both Vectors then a special version of that > method will be called (a.swap(b)  that is method which is defined in > Vector). But when we look how Vector<T>::Swap is defined, we can see > that it simply calls that version of swap which was defined in the > general template. Yes, but it doesn't create any temporary Vector objects, and doesn't use assignment of those. It uses the swap for dealing with the builtin types for the members 'v' and 'size' (probably a pointer and an integer) > Where is a gap in the above reasoning? Well, try without the specialization, and see how your program runs, how many vectors it creates, how many copies it makes. Then provide the specialization and see if there's any difference. You may see the light, or you may not. V  I do not respond to topposted replies, please don't ask 
Re: Template function specialization
On Tue, 31 Jul 2012 05:38:58 0700, davidkevin wrote:
> I am sure I am missing something but I can't see how above code make it > possible to achieve a better efficiency when swap() will be called for a > vector of vectors. > > The last piece of code makes that if swap will be executed for parameters > which are both Vectors then a special version of that method will be > called (a.swap(b)  that is method which is defined in Vector). But when > we look how Vector<T>::Swap is defined, we can see that it simply calls > that version of swap which was defined in the general template. The generic swap() calls Vector<T>::operator=, which copies the vector's data (deep copy), while the specialised version only copies the pointer (shallow copy) and the size. 
Re: Template function specialization
Yes... it is so simple :). Thanks!

Re: Template function specialization
On 31/07/2012 19:49, davidkevin@o2.pl wrote:
> Yes... it is so simple :). Thanks! In C++11 it is efficient and simpler at the same time, since you no longer need to implement template specializations to "move" the values of your objects. In facts, given a type T supporting move semantics, you can swap two lvalues this way: template <class T> void swap(T& a, T& b) { T tmp = std::move(a); a = std::move(b); b = std::move(tmp); } 
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